<*? 1933

University of Western Ontario

London, Canada

Pass Junior Matriculation admits to undergraduate General Course in Arts. General Course in Secretarial Science.

General Course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.Sc). Honor Matriculation in four specified subjects admits to under- graduate— Honor Courses in Arts leading to Ontario Specialist Certifi- cates, including Commercial Specialist. Honor Course in Business Administration. Six-year Course in Medicine. Public Health Courses (1 year) for graduate nurses and doctors. Physical Education, athletics, military training and health insur- ance provided.

For announcements and information about scholarships, matriculation, courses, etc., write:

K. P. R. Neville, Ph.D., Registrar.

Ask Any Man in Whom You Have Confidence, About Life Insurance

The more successful a man is, the more he appreciates the benefits of

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For example, by means of a Confederation Life Endowment Polic

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if through accident or illness, you become totally disabled, your premiums

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finally, when the policy matures, vpu will receive the entire proceeds of

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definite Monthly Income for Life.

The Confederation Life Ass ciaition will gladly send you particulars of

this most desirable form of Endowment Policy upon request

Confederation Life

Head Office Association TORONTO

C. S. Macdonald, m.a. V. R. Smith, ma., a.a.s.. a.i.a., f.a.i.a.

President Gtntral Manoger &■ Actuary


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Trinity College, federated with the University and now removed to Queen's Park, is one of the Arts Colleges of the University and includes:

1. A Faculty of Arts providing instruction for students in classes of limited size in all subjects taught by the colleges.

2. The full advantages of Federation with the University, instruction by its Professors, qualification for its Scholarships and Degrees, use of its Library, Laboratories and Athletic facilities and membership in Hart House.

3. A Faculty of Divinity in which Trinity exercises its University powers of conferring degrees and prepares candidates for the ministry of the Church.

4. Residences under College regulations for men "Trinity House" ; and for women students "St. Hilda's" ; also for members of the academic staff.

5. The Scholarships offered by the College have recently been revised and largely increased. Full particulars will be supplied on request.

For information concerning Scholarships, Exhibitions, Bursaries, etc., address

The Registrar, Trinity College, Toronto 5







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ERNEST A. CHAPMAN, St. Andrew's College

Toronto Address: 143 Alexandra Blvd. Hudson 9358


t &nbreto'£ College

Aurora, Ontario

CHAIRMAN: His Grace, The Duke of Devonshire, K.G.


Col. Thomas Cantley, M.P., LL.D., New Glasgow, N.S.

Sir Arthur Currie. G.C.M.G., K.C.B., LL.D., Montreal, Que.

E. W. Beatty, Esq., LL.D., Montreal, Que.

Sir Robert Falconer, K.C.M.G., D.Litt., (Edin.) Toronto


Chairman Sir Joseph Flavelle, Bart.

A. M. Campbell, Esq. Graham Campbell, Esq. Colonel Henry Cockshutt Hon. the Rev. Canon Cody,

D.D., LL.D. R. Y. Eaton, Esq. Dr. Duncan Graham D. B. Hanna, Esq.

Vice- Chairman Frank A. Rolph, Esq.

Harry B. Housser, Esq. W. B. McPherson, Esq. Rev. D. Bruce Macdonald,

M.A., LL.D. Lt.-Col. J. F. Michie Victor Ross, Esq. T. A. Russell, Esq. Graham A. Towers, Esq. Professor George M. Wrong

Robert E. Grass, Esq. Whiteford G. Bell, Esq.

Representing the Old Boys' Association

Ctje &t. &nbreto'g College


4$liti= Rummer 1933

Editor-in-Chief, MR. R. B. COWAN, B.Sc.

Editorial Board

Editor-General T. E. Hethrington

Sports Editor J- H- Hamilton

School News Editor - E. S. Macdonald, I

Exchange and Special Editor P- B- Parker

Skits Editor ..H.M.Thomson

Old Boys' News Editor IB. Macdonald, II

Managing Editor J. M. Shapley

Business Editors . . . F. H. Moffat. T. G. Armstrong. B. E. Metcalfe Lower School Representative A. S. Thompson. 1 1


The aim of the Review is to present a faithful record of the life of the School to em- body the traditions of which we are justly proud, yet keep pace

with the times to be a

salutation to Andreans past, a standard for Andreans to come.



Editorial 15

Mr. E. A. Chapman 18


Government Control of Radio 19

The Toronto Carrying Place 22

Adolph in Blunderland 25

Christians Still 27

The Appreciation of Music 29

Shooting the Lachine Rapids 32

Italian Switzerland 34

Beagling 37

Old Boys in Sport 39

That One Talent 42

The English Lakes 45


The Broken Thread 21

Andrew 31

School Xews

The Upper Sixth 47

The Head Prefect 51

Cadet Corps 53

Rifle Shooting 55

Cadet Corps Dance S6

The Gymnastic Display 56

The Ontario Interscholastic "Gym" Team Meet 58

Life Saving 59

The Penguin Club 61

Assault-at-Arms 62

The Barrie Athletic. Meet 63

The Richmond Hill Sports Meet 65

The Literary Society 67

Chapel Xotes 66

Cricket, Hockey and Basketball

First Team Cricket 71

First Team Hockey 75

Bantam Hockey 80

First Team Basketball 81

Macdoxald House

Xotes 84, 89

Cricket 84

Hockev 86

Skits 91

Old Boys' Xews 94

Exchanges 99

Skits 101

7 iC :


St. Andrew's College Review

fllMNSummcr, 1933

T is June, 1933. Again we pause to chronicle the events of another school year, a year which has differed in many respects fn»m its long line of predecessors. While living together during these months we have become < »nsciousof a change a nearness to stark reality that many of us had failed to sense before.

Incidents, in themselves of trifling importance, have prompted us to consider the future a little more seriously than has been our custom. We have changed; the very uncertainty of the times has brought us together more closely than environment alone could ever have done.

Though not a large body, we are an earnest one, and reviewing the year now history, we may congratulate ourselves in all modesty on a job well done. In work and play we have given ourselves in unselfish co- operation to the task at hand. The result is that in spite of the fact that the Depression is still reported to be holding its own, this year has blessed us no less tangibly than its forbears.

We feel sure that you who read these pages will forgive this soliloquy, but it is fitting that the abstract, but vital quality commonly called "School Spirit" should be duly noted when observed.

It is with deep regret that we record the death of Sir Daniel McMillan, K.C.M.G., former Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba and a member of


our Advisory Board. Sir Daniel has taken a helpful interest in the college over a period of many years, and his passing leaves a vacancy which will not easily be filled.

Some of our readers, no doubt, wondered that they had not received the Easter issue; others, perhaps, were unaware that they had missed it. No matter to which group you belong, we offer our explanations. The many activities of the winter term, coupled with a week of examinations, leave little time for the production of the Review. In the past we have spent less time than we would have liked upon the Easter issue; con- sequently it has been found wiser to combine this number with the Midsummer one.

We feel that such an action will not retard our progress, but rather that it should improve the quality of the magazine.

The Review is happy to acknowledge and reproduce several con- tributions from Andreans of past years.

Mention is made elsewhere of our two gymnasium displays during the winter, but the Review heartily congratulates Mr. Griffiths who gave so much of his time and energy to assure its outstanding success. Of those who took part, the Gymnasium Team especially deserve credit. In their exhibitions, both here and in Toronto, they have created an enviable reputation among the similar organizations of the province.

Right here we make a bow to the Lower School Hockey team for coming through a heavy season undefeated, thus giving us their besl performance in some years. Their example should be a source of inspiration to our other teams, and we assure you that they will be heard from again in the not-far-distant future.

With t'.iis issue we bid farewell to Captain C. A. B. Young, who. during the last three years, has rendered constanl sei vice to almost i school activity. While primarily a master in the Lower School, Captain Young has worked untiringly with the Cadet Corps and the cricket teams, and the results of his efforts are all that could be desired. We extend to him our appreciation, and our good wishes go with him and his wife in their future work.

No review oi the year would be complete without reference to the Headmaster's address, "To-daj and To-morrow," delivered before the Home and School Club at Forest Hill Village school on March 11


He commenced with a resume of the world political, financial and economic conditions brought about by the Great War, and observed that man had not developed sufficiently to control the works of his own hands.

While emphasizing the necessity of interdependence, he stressed first and foremost the need for faith in one's own country.

"Our hope," he said, "must lie in the rising generation." And he proceeded to show that only those instructed in the art of living could ever fulfil that hope.

The home, the school, and the church were mentioned as the three great character-moulding organizations of youth. The home had grown full of distractions, and the church had become neglected. In manv cases it was left for the school to shoulder the responsibilities of parents. Many schools had in view only the student's ability to pass examinations; a school with the proper environment could do much, but it could not replace the home or the church.

( Crtain habits of life which a faithful and churchgoing race of fathers instilled into us will never be without effect in our case," he concluded. "but I do fear for the rising generation. Their eyes are upon us, and they, having little experience in lift-, will go too far. only to acquire too late, the knowledge that there may be a golden meaning in life."

An Editorial is never finished. There is always something which passes unsaid, no matter how many pages are written. It is difficult to leave you, haunted as we are. by that sense of incompleteness which editors know so well.

Many we hope to see again in the fall, and to them go our good wishes for a well-earned holiday. There are some whose days amongst us are numbered; they cannot know what Destiny has prepared for them, but they are confident. To you who are about to launch your craft on the troubled waters of Life. "A safe and prosperous voyage and a quiet harbour when the Ocean lies behind."

Kditor General



Au Revoir


R. EARNEST A. CHAPMAN has been our director of Phy- sical Education for twenty- eight years. In addition to this he is a prominent Rotarian, and the Presi- dent of the Royal Life-Saving So- ciety's Ontario branch.

Mr. Chapman came to the School in 1905, the first year at the Rosedale building, and prior to his appointment had been lightweight boxing and wrestling champion of Canada.

As a young man, he studied at Harvard with a view to becoming a physician, but entered, instead, the field of physical training.

He was married in 1908, and the following year he founded Camp Kagawong on Manitoulin Island in Georgian Bay. The next summer the camp was moved to Balsam Lake where, to-day, it is one of the Dominion's finest boys' camps, both in equipment and situation.

Until 1926 Mr. Chapman took an active part in the gymnasium work as instructor, and since the school has been at Aurora he has given constant oversight to the work ol Ins successors.

Feeling that Mr. Griffiths is com] etent to carry on, and wiping to devote his full time to his mam and varied interests outside the college, Mr. Chapman is retiring at the end of the year. We are sorry I him leave, but we are sure that he will not completely sever his tion with the school for which he has worked so long.




Government Control of Radio

SCIENTIFIC discovery has been very rapid during the past thirty years. In the field of entertainment there was a period of gramo- phone supremacy prior to the advent of the radio, but the latter soon displaced it. The radio as a medium of entertainment is only ten years old. There does not appear to be any danger in the near future of its disappearance, unless it should give way to television, which is really a twin brother of radio. When one considers that in its ten years of existence the radio has rapidly become a tremendous factor in the everyday life of America, one shudders to think of it growing any older without a good education. It is a child prodigy, born of science, whose natural tendencies are both good and bad. As with every other child, its education is of prime importance. It must not be allowed to grow into manhood without the restraint of some sober hand to attest against its wantonness. It must have some wise advice as to the utilization of its finer potentialities. It is a well-known fact that radio to-day is being recognized by far too many as purely a source of frivolous enter- tainment and that its great possibilities in government, education, culture, etc., are being sadly neglected. If possible, it is my desire to show that radio can be maintained at its rightful status in our lives only by some form of government control.

The principle of operation of the present radio system is that industry will supply the broadcasts in the form of advertisements. The means by which the sponsors of these programmes determine their nature are not quite clear to me. I only know that as a rule the programmes consist of dance orchestras, colloquial wit and buffoonery. There are, however, many fine broadcasts of an educational and cultural nature, but these are in the minority. Many large corporations in America own and operate their own stations, and of course, rent them to smaller stations desirous of publicity. There are also large firms whose business is owning and


operating broadcasting studios. Another aspect of the present radio system worthy of notice is the large number of stations broadcasting. There are many stations operating on the same wave-length but in different countries, which cause a great deal of interference. Also, many radio-receiving sets are being produced which can pick up stations in any country in the world. It is apparent that international conferences regarding broadcasting must be held sooner or later, and that under the present system this would be difficult to arrange.

There are several types of government control of radio. In Canada, government control of radio is no longer a question, as it has been adopted by the federal government. Naturally we have not yet felt the con- sequences, as the government only recently arrived at the decision. The Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission has been set up by an act of parliament. Mr. Hector Charlesworth, former editor of the Toronto Saturday Night, has been appointed president of this com- mission. He is peculiarly suited to this office as he has always kept his finger on the Canadian pulse and maintained an outlook abreast of the times. This commission was given a grant of one million dollars. Thus far the commission has succeeded in sponsoring several fine programmes each week over prominent Canadian stations. Its real aim, however, is to own and operate a chain of stations across the Dominion and to control the programmes of other stations. It will, of course, be several years in completing its programme of complete government control. There are many more important features of government control of radio than public ownership. In fact, public ownership is only a means to an end. The most interesting aspect of government control is the '"end". The "end" is, briefly, to broadcast a wide variety of programmes at all times which should satisfy the requirements of every Canadian. Instead of grandmother hating the radio for its too ample supply of twentieth century harmony, she will be able to enjoy some form of dignified enter- tainment as late as eleven o'clock in the evening, which is very nearly impossible with the present system. School children will be able to listen to famous incidents in Canadian history in dialogue form. Corporations desiring to give broadcasts will be allowed to present only what is deemed fit by the Radio Commission. There will be some amusing or educating broadcast for every member of the family every hour of the day, instead of only haphazardly, as at present.

On account of the brevity with which I am obliged to treat this subject I do not feel that this essay is complete enough to turn the sentiments of anyone prejudiced against government control of radio. I should like to advance briefly in this paragraph a few of my reasons for believing so implicitly in it. I feel, in common with many others, that science is running man off his feet. Radio is one of the greatest gifts science has


bestowed upon mankind. It is so universal in its application after a period of ten years of existence that its importance and popularity cannot be questioned. But there are large concerns with lucrative designs who are fighting for a monopoly of radio manufacture and broadcasting rights. Fortunately, one of the largest of these was recently broken up by the timely intervention of the United States government. It is plain to see that the great potentialities of radio are not being overlooked by private speculators. Their unimpeded buccaneering may prove disastrous to the future of radio and that is why our government is taking the situation in hand before it is too late, and will develop it in the best interests of the nation. Apart from the business interests, government control will, as I previously mentioned, improve the broadcast matter tremendously. Moreover, we shall not be presuming if we prophesy much controversy over the merits of the changes to be effected by the commission.

I should like to conclude by pointing out that the sentiment of the Canadian people is divided regarding public ownership of utilities. It has been especially so since the revelation of the true railway situation. But after the experience gained, at the rather exorbitant price of two and one half billion dollars, in the results of mal-administration of public utilities, the people of Canada should have learned how to operate their federal business by a more efficient system of public ownership.

The Broken Thread

Hark! 'Tis the song of a thirsty blade Singing wild, sweet music to the thrilling air. Heaped by this sword lies a circle of slain, But grim Death smiles in his hidden lair As close behind a hand holds high a knife. The blood-drunk steel leaps up to drink again And wet cold lips at the warm breast of life. Hot blood surges madly through unquiet veins. Death with his hand the curbing reins Tugs sharply. In mid-air the blow is stayed. The cycle of life its ruptured course forsakes. Strained too long the taut thread breaks. Hastening shoreward the dying ripples race. The pool of life presents a placid face.

Robt. T. Cattle, Jr., '32.


The Toronto Carrying-Place

IN Canada and the United States exploration and settlement followed the great waterways and the trails of the aborigines. The former still serve as means of communication, but the majority of the latter have disappeared under the plough of the pioneer. These vanished trails had a great importance to the Indians and to the early settlers, and some of them may be compared to our railways and highways which run from coast to coast and make the most distant regions accessible. There was a well marked trail, for example, from the Great Lakes to the Hudson Bay, another along the north shore of Lake Ontario and the Thames valley by which the traveller could go from Montreal to Detroit. By following the great trunk routes it was possible to travel on foot with few breaks from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Such trails differed, of course, very much from the trails which ran from village to village or from lake to lake, which would change and disappear with the fluctuations of population; they had a permanence due to their utility and most of these trunk lines of communication must have been as old as human life on the continent.

The region between Toronto and the Georgian Bay was traversed by one of these important trails. Two-thirds of the distance between these two fresh water seas is navigable waterway. Thirty miles of trail from the mouth of the Humber to the west branch of the Holland river completed a short-cut which saved hundreds of miles of tiresome paddling over exposed waters. This passage between Lake Ontario and tin- Georgian Bay was known as early as the time of La Salle as the "Toronto Portage", and it continued to be an important thoroughfare till the founding of York, when Yonge Street took its place.

St. Andrew's College is right in the heart of this interesting region. About six miles to the west of the College the course of the Carrying-Place from the head of the sixth concession, the township of King, t<> the mouth of the Humber may be traced on the maps, for the actual path has itself long since disappeared. Along the hills which we see to the east of the College ran the eastern branch of the portage leading from Holland Landing to the mouth of the Rouge. There are no good map- of this section of the trail, but it is likely that part of it followed the route now taken by the railway. These two branches of the portage from Lake Simcoe to Lake Ontario were at one time equally important; they were of equal length and would be used according to the direction in which the traveller was going.

During the first half of the seventeenth century when the French \ established on the Georgian Bay we know very little about the region in


which our school is situated. The Iroquois, who were the fierce rivals of the Hurons for the possession of the fur trade, were in possession of the north and south shores of Lake Ontario, and the French could onlv reach their stations on Lake Huron by way of the Ottawa. Nevertheless the trail is shown for the hrst time on Sanson's map of 1650.

It is during the second half of the seventeenth century that the region in which we live began to come into history. The French, after the building of Fort Frontenac in 1673, became familiar with Lake Ontario and began to use the Toronto Carrying-Place in both its branches as a means of communication between Fort Frontenac and Michilimackinac. the new centre of the fur trade in the north. At this time the Hurons had been expelled from Ontario and the Iroquois used the whole country as a beaver hunting-ground. There must have been many of these sagacious little animals in the streams about Aurora. The great explorer Joliet was one of the first to traverse the district after the expulsion of the Hurons. In the map which he made in 1674 only two places are marked in what is now the Province of Ontario, Fort Frontenac and the Toronto Carrying-Place. This is an indication of the importance of the route. It is now known that the trail was traversed by very many of the early explorers, missionaries and traders, and that the region was occupied first by the Hurons, then by the Iroquois, and finally by the Missisaugas, who were in possession of the country when the first British settlers arrived. Traces of these early "inhabitants are still turned up by the plough.

At the conclusion of the War of American Independence when Great Britain ceded to the United States that huge tract of land lying north of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi, a region which had formerly been regarded as a part of Canada, the merchants in Montreal were compelled to look for a new route to the great fur country of the North- West ; they had lost the rich region south of the lakes, and it was necessary to find a route entirely within British territory, which would enable them to exploit the still richer regions of the north. The importance of the Toronto Carrying-Place was immediately recognized, and five years before Simcoe founded his town of York. Lord Dorchester laid out on the same site his town of Toronto. Thus it was that the city of Toronto really owed its origin to the old Indian trail. Simcoe in 1793 immediately replaced the trail by a straight road cut through the woods calling it Yonge Street after the member of Parliament in England in whose constituency he had lived.

That is how Yonge Street had its origin. It was intended to take the place of the Carrying-Place. Judging by the traffic on Yonge Street on a holiday the road still continues to serve much the same purpose as the trail. St. Andrew's College boys in this historic region may picture


to themselves all the changes which have taken place in transportation from Indians and canoes, ox-carts and horses and stage coaches to trolley- cars and bicycles and railways and motors and flying machines. It is an interesting pageant and we probably have not yet come to the end.

P.J. K.

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Adolph in Blunderland

.1 hectic interview with Herr Hitler)

By our special correspondent 1- \ ac Van Passenbaum


Issac VAN Passbnbaum

'HE dynamic personality gazed at my

card beneath beetled brows; then, with

a quick upward movement, he jerked

his haggard visage to where 1 stood, trembling

but determined:

"You are a Jew," he rasped, foaming horribly at the mouth.

i am a Canadian citizen," 1 countered ci-ily.

The man who has terrorized a continent ran his long fingers through his matted hair and sighed something which I failed to catch. "Herr Hitler." 1 ventured, now completely at my ease, "is it true that you are insane?" ••Sometimes I don't know what to think," the dictator admitted gloomily, "but then there's always the Jews to fall back on." he continued, hi- face brightening as he noted my furtive glance at the ceiling.

My SANG FROID was fast deserting me, bin. shifting uneasily,

I began again.

"Our readers," said I, "are anxious to know just what you intend to do now that you have come into power."

•'I intend." came the impassioned reply, "to keep Germany tor the Germans'."

"And Austria for the Austrians," said I in an undertone remembering the country honoured by his birth. The Nazi chieftain coughed.

"Have a chair," he coaxed.

At this point our sparring was interrupted by the presence of a large black object which crashed through the window and landed neatly on the massive desk.

"A bomb." said Adolph quietly pointing at the spluttering fuse

"It might have killed me."

"But it didn't," I remarked for want of something better to say. "What are vou going to do with it.J"

My host's reply was drowned in the clatter of hobnail boots, and two burly ruffians burst unceremoniously into the room, their arms raised


in the Nazi salute. The Dictator swung around and faced them. "Next time I have you pull a stunt like that, see that the window is open," said the man of iron curtly. "It takes money to run this place. Now. send the photographers in and don't forget the usual headline: 'Attempt to assassinate Hitler foiled'."

When the henchmen had departed the superman picked up the engine of death.

"It's filled with sand," he explained as he flicked it into the waste basket. "And," he added as an afterthought, "thousands of Jews and Communists and things will pay for attempting this dastardly deed!"

Staggered by the devilish cunning of this Master Mind I could only gasp a feeble assent. As my mind strayed over the events of the last half hour they seemed like a shadowy nightmare. Outside, the April sun was sinking behind the Wilhelmstrasse, and in the park a brass band was playing the "Red Flag".

Hitler seemed unaware of my presence. He stared moodily at the carpet. I rose to go and as he looked up I saw that there were tears in his eyes.

"I am so tired, Passenbaum," he sighed, addressing me by name, "you have no idea how hard it is to look fierce for the tabloids.

My heart softened. Here was the real Hitler, the man behind the mask. Forgotten was the shedder of blood the braggart, and in their place was a little man terrified by the bigness of his job.

As I reached the door I was conscious of the high-pitched strains of a mellow violin; he was fondling his Stradivarius. Catching my parting glance he paused, bow lifted dramatically high in the air.

"Passenbaum." he said in a voice (linked w ith emotion, "I have nc persecuted anyone; I have never attempted to gain power by force; I am peace-loving, law-abiding, and God-fearing in all ray speeches I have championed the Hebrew people "

"But Herr Hitler!" I cried, "the newspapers the refugees; why, what you say is impossible'"

The man was silent for a full minute, like one in a trance, then slowly, very slowly, he turned to me once more:



Christians Still

RUSSIA is a country where religion is tolerated, but no more than tolerated, any longer. The children have lost God entirely, or, to be more exact, never knew Him. for their parents are forbidden to give them any religious teaching whatsoever. The older people are also encouraged by every possible means to give up their religion, but as yet they have not been actually forced to do so. A great many have abandoned their faith, but there are still those who have not done so, and it is these who find themselves faced with a very disheartening situation. They are carrying on. but the odds are ever increasing. They realize only too well that their years are numbered, and that when they are gone, no younger hands will be there to take up the work of the church. It is for this reason that they are extremely unhappy and

discouraged. .

Picture a small Russian town. A little church stands in one of its noisy streets. Probably when it was built it fitted into the street, as the necessarv peace and quiet existed. But such is no longer the case. The once peaceful little thoroughfare has become a victim of the spirit of new times. It has been opened up, reconstructed and widened, and is now just another noisy road. Shops and buildings of all kinds have sprung up, and the little church, at one time so picturesque, surrounded by its tall trees and bushes is no longer anything but a glaring misfit. The trees— the bushes, have for the most part been ruthlessly hewn down; barren loneliness has taken the place of happiness and content- ment.

But let us look inside. Tall images in and around the large windows keep out the greater part of the light, which is little enough, due to the dark stained glass windows. Toward the front are the church banners- pieces of golden coloured fabric with multi-coloured centres.

It is evening and the Christian people of the village, though few in number, are assembled in this holy place that they may give themselves up for an hour to prayer and worship. Four small coal-oil lamps together share the task of illuminating the interior. The whole atmos- phere is one of dulness and gloom. The people seem lifeless, and de- pressed. Their faces wear a look of disappointment which is not far from being a look of distress.

The priest is standing before a praying desk, dimly lighted by one small candle. He has no assistant now, though years ago he would not have dreamed of carrying on a service without the stern voice of a deacon being raised from time to time.

The priest himself looks like a mountain of gold. Only his head in a tall black hat emerges from his robe of gold brocade. His ears are thin



and almost waxen. His voice, if it may be called a voice, is one of a sick and weary man— a man who is fighting a losing fight and who knows it. His face is pale and sickly; deep shadows lie under the protruding cheek- bones, and his colourless eyes are sunken. Those eyes seem to have lost the world entirely. There is a vacant look in them as if he seemed to see something far away.

The service lasts about an hour. During its course the priest breathes the words of various prayers, while the worshippers listen intently with bowed heads. Chants are sung. Long shadows are cast on the walls and floor in the dull light, and the whole thing seems to have something strange but extremely reverend about it. Finally the sermon comes. The priest speaks of John in the wilderness. He closes with the words, "We too are in a wilderness— may God bring us aid1" A long hymn follows. It is a slow and sadly beautiful hymn in praise of the Father. The service is finished, and once again the little gathering goes out into the noisy street. WEBSTER, LVI.


The Appreciation of Music

MUSIC, if reduced to its simplest terms, may be said to consist of the following fundamental elements: Rhythm, Melody, Harmony and Form. Of these Rhythm, while not of more importance than the others, comes first. An arrangement of agreeable sounds in an irregular manner would not be musical, so that the regular s\\ ing or Rhythm becomes absolutely necessary.

But Rhythm alone very M)on becomes monotonous; so, to be truly music, we must have a tune also. This would give true music, but of a very simple form.

Very greatly increased interest is given when two or more tunes which go musically together are used simultaneously, or when one tune is accompanied by harmonic sounds to give it a richer background.

Even this is hardly sufficient to make an interesting composition. We must have form or architectural outline on somewhat the same basis as in poetry.

With these fundamentals in our mind, let us now consider some of the main divisions oi music trom a general standpoint.