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HISTORY

CRAWFORD COUNTY,

PENNSYLVANIA,

Containing A History of the County; its Townships, Towns,

Villages, Schools, Churches, Industries, etc.; Portraits of

Early Settlers and Prominent Men; Biographies;

History of Pennsylvania; Statistical and

Miscellaneous Matter, etc.. etc.

IXjLTJSTIE^J^TEID.

CHICAGO: WARNER, BEERS & CO 1885.

JOHN MORRIS SUCCESSOR TO

F 1 5 ^/

PREFACE.

THE material that comes within the legitimate scope of a history of Crawford County may appear commonplace when compared with that which is embodied in national history; nevertheless the faithful gathering and the truthful narration of facts relating to its aboriginal and pre-Amer- ican period, the coming of the white race to occupy its soil, and the dangers, hardships and privations encountered by its pioneers while engaged in advancing the standards of civilization, together with its sub- sequent moral and material growth and development, is a work of no small magnitude.

The first settlers who acted so important a part in this portion oE the State, and who heretofore have been the sole custodians of much historical knowledge essential for such a work as this have all passed away, but for- tunately a few of the men who bore the burdens of the pioneer, left to their children a written record of early days in Crawford County, thus pre- serving for fnfciire generations the history of the first American settlement in the Valley of French Creek. In connection with these records the descendants of the pioneers in every part of the county have been inter- viewed, and their recollections given due weight in the compilation of its history.

For the convenience of its readers the book has been divided into parts. The outline history of the State was prepared expressly for us by Prof. Samuel P. Bates, a well known author of Meadville. The history of Craw- ford County and the City of Meadville was written by Mr. R. C. Brown, of Chicago 111. ; while the history of the City of Titusville and the several townships of the county was compiled by Mr. J. B. Mansfield, of Ashland, Ohio. The biographical sketches which appear in the latter part of the book are purely complimentary, and a proof of each sketch was submitted by mail to the subject for correction.

The most authentic publications bearing on early events in Northwestern Pennsylvania have been consulted, and the State and county records have also been freely utilized as reliable -sources of information. The scarcity in many instances of authentic local data, has been overcome by a system- atic and careful research of family manuscripts and the old newspaper tiles, dating back to 1805, from which were gathered many of the most important local events that have transpired during the past three -equarters of a century. The private papers of Gen. David Mead, " Reminiscences of the Olden Time," by the late John Reynolds, Esq., the recollections of the

PREFACE. iy

late John Dick, Esq., the autobiography of Cornelius Van Home, Esq., Mr. Alfred Huidekoper's "Incidents in the Early History of Crawford County, Penn.," and the address of William H. Davis, Esq., on the history of the county, delivered in 1848, before the Meadville Literary Union, were all of invaluable aid to the county historian.

The series of articles contributed to the press by the late Thomas Kus- ton Kennedy, Esq. , were, too, of great assistance to the same writer, which can also be said of live lectures on the Holland and Pennsylvania Population Land Companies, the churches, schools, agriculture and internal improve- ments of the county, which were respectively prepared and delivered in Meadville, by Alfred Huidekoper, Esq., Eev. Eichard Craighead, Prof. Sam- uel P. Bates, Joshua Douglass, Esq., and Hon. William Reynolds, each of whom extended to Mr. Brown kindly advice and generous sympathy from the inception until the close of his labors.

Among others whose assistance we desire to acknowledge, are the late Judge David Derickson, Hon. Hiram L. Richmond, Rev. J. V. Reynolds Hon. G. B. Delamater, Col. Alexander Power, David M. Farrelly, Esq., Joseph Dickson, Esq., Dr. Edward Ellis and Mrs. Jane Bemus, while the county ofiBcials and the leading members of every profession and calling throughout the county were always willing to lend a helping hand in fur- thering the labors of the historians. Special acknowledgments are due to Francis C. Waid, Esq., of Woodcock Township, for his generous and munificent patronage to the work, and the unqualified interest he has dis- played in its welfare. The publishers avail themselves of this opportunity to thank all who have thus aided in the preparation of the work; for what- ever of merit the history of Crawford County contains is due, in a large measure, to their assistance.

We undertook the publication of a history of this county, upon the advice and encouragement of a goodly number of the leading members of the "Historical Society of Crawford County," and after more than a year of unceasing toil we present the book to our many hundred patrons, with the belief that we have fulfilled every promise made in our prospectus, and with the satisfaction of knowing that we bring what we guaranteed.

THE PUBLISHERS.

CONTENTS.

PART I.

HISTORY OF PENNSYLVANIA.

PAGE.

CHAPTER I.— Introductory 15-23

Cornelis Jacobson Mey, 1624-25. William Van Hulst, 1625-26. Peter Minuit, 1626-33. David Petersen de Vries, 1632-33. Wouter Van Twiller, 1633-38.

CHAPTER II 23

Sir William Keift, 1638-47. Peter Minuit, 1638-41. Peter Hollandaer, 1641-43. John Printz, 1643-53. Peter Stuyvesant, 1647-64. John Pappagoya, 1653-54. John Claude Rysingh, 1654-55.

CHAPTER III 33-35

John Paul Jacquet, 1655-57. Jacob Alrichs, 1657-59. Goeran Van Dyck, 1657-58. Will- iam Beekman, 1658-63. Alex. D'Hinoyossa, 1659-64.

CHAPTER IV 35-41

Richard Nichols, 1664-67. Robert Need- ham, 1664-68. Francis Lovelace, 1667-73. John Carr, 1668-73. Anthony Colve, 1673-74. Peter Alrichs, 1673-74.

CHAPTER V 41-50

Sir Edmund Andros, 1674-81. Edmund Cantwell, 1674-76. John Collier, 1676-77. Christopher Billop, 1677-81.

CHAPTER VI 51-61

William Markham, 1681-82. William Penn, 1682-84.

CHAPTER VII 61-69

Thomas Lloyd, 1684-86. Five Commis- sioners, 1686-88. John Blackwell, 1688-90. Thomas Lloyd, 1690-91. William Markham, 1691-93. Benjamin Fletcher, 1693-95. Will- iam Markham, 1693-99

PAGE

CHAPTER VIII 69-75

William Penn, 1699-1701. Andrew Hamil- ton, 1701-03. Edward Shippen, 1703-04. John Evans, 1704-09. Charles Gooken, 1709-17.

CHAPTER'IX 75-89

Sir William Keith, 1717-26. Patrick Gor- don, 1726-36. James Logan, 1736-38. George Thomas, 1738-47. Anthony Palmer, 1747-48. Jam es Hamilton, 1748-54.

CHAPTERS 89-97

Robert H. Morris, 1754-56. William Den- ny, 1756-59. James Hamilton, 1759-63.

CHAPTER XI 98-104

John Penn, 1763-71. James Hamilton, 1771. Richard Penn, 1771-73. John Penn, 1773-76.

CHAPTER XII 104-114

Thomas Wharton, Jr., 1777-78. George Bryan, 1778. Joseph Reed, 1778-81. William Moore, 1781-82. John Dickinson, 1782-85. Benjamin Franklin, 178.5-88.

CHAPTER XIII 114-121

Thomas Mifflin, 1788-99. Thomas Mc- Kean, 1799-1808. Simon Snvder, 1808-17. William Findlay, 1817-20. Joseph Heister, 1820-23. John A, Shulze, 1823-29. George Wolfe, 1829-.30. Joseph Ritner, 1835-39.

CHAPTER XIV 122-131

David R. Porter, 1839-45. Francis R. Shunk, 1845-48. William F. Johnstone, 184R- 52. William Bigler, 1852-55. John Pollock, 1855-58. William F. Packer, 1858-61. An- drew G. Curtin, 1861-67. John W. Geary, 1867-73. John F. Hartranft, 1873-78. Henry F. Hoyt, 1878-82. Robert E. Pattison, 1882.

Gubernatorial Table 1.32

PART II.

HISTORY OF CRAWFORD COUNTY.

CHAPTER I.— Archeology 137-142

The Mound Builders Evidences of a Van- ished Race Delaware Tradition of the Al- legewi Pre-historic Remains in Crawford County— Stone Mound. Near Oil Creek- Old Meadows on French Creek and Indian Tradition Regarding Them— Circular Forts and Mounds Below Meadville Indian Graves and Relics Description of a Large Fort near Pymatuning Swamp— Numerous Artificial Oil Pits Found by the Pioneers in the Vicinity of Titusville Mounds in Other Portions of the County Archaeological Conclusions Regarding These Monuments of Antiquity.

CHAPTER IL— Indian History 142-153

The Eries Occupy the Southern Shore of

Lake Erie— They are Conquered and Dis- persed by the Iroquois— Catholic Missiona- ries who have Written of the Eries Defini- tion of Their Name— Mention of the Eries on Two Old French Maps at Harrisburg— Seneca Tradition Regarding the War of Extermination— The Senecas Occupy the Conquered Territory— War Between the Senecas and Massassaugas ^Indian Villages in Crawford County— Friendly Indians and White Prisoners Found Here by the First Settlers— Neighboring Indian Towns— Biog- raphy of Corn-planter— Ancient Indian Trace Delegations of Wyandots and Sene- cas Pass Through Meadville in 1808— Coun- cil at Jennesedaga Between Citizens of Crawford County and the Senecas— The Lat- ter Join the Americans in the War of 1812-15.

CONTENTS.

PAGE.

CHAPTER III.— French Navigators, Etc.154-169 Cartier discovers the St. Lawrence— Champlain Founds Quebec and Montreal- French Explorations— Catholic Missionaries Visit the Fries and Iroquois— Joncaire— French and English Traders— Conflicting Claims— Celeron's Expedition— The French Take Possession of the Allegheny and Ohio Valleys and Build Forts Presque Isle, Le Boeuf, Machault and DuQuense— Catholic Church Erected at Presque Isle— Eng- lish Resistance to the Claims of France- Washington's Mission to the French Com- mandant of LeBceuf— War Between the Two Nations— Old French Road Through Crawford County— French Fort at Site of Meadville— Evacuation of the Country by the French, and English Occupancy— Forts Presque Isle and LeBa?uf Repaired and Venango and Pitt Erected— Indian Dissatis- faction—Pontiac's Conspiracy and Capture of Forts Venango, LeBauf and Presque Isle— Revolutionary War and American Possession— Indian Treaties— Erection of Fort Franklin— Soldiers Stationed at Mead's Block-house— French Creek Settlers Organ- ize for Protection— English and Indian C)p- position to American Occupation Wayne's Victory and Final Peace.

CHAPTER IV.— Pioneers of French Creek

170-181

David and John Mead Visit the Valley in 1787— Appearance of the Country at that Time— First Settlement Made in May, 1788, by David, John and Joseph Mead, Thomas Martin, John Watson, James Fitz Randolph, Thomas Grant, Cornelius Van Home and Christopher Snyder They Plow and Plant a Field of Corn in the Bottom West of French Creek— Selections of Lands— David and John Mead Bring Out Their Families— Ar- rival of Darius Mead, Robert Fitz Randolph and Frederick Baum First Birth in the Settlement Biographies of David Mead, John Mead, Cornelius Van Home, Robert Fitz Randolph and Edward Fitz Randolph —The Heritage They Left to Their De- scendants.

CHAPTER v.— Indian Depredations 181-191

Friendly Indians The Settlers Leave the Valley in April, 1791— Return of Cornelius Van Home, Thomas Ray and William Uregg Capture of Van Home by the Indians and his Subsequent Escape He Meets Ensign Jeffers at Mead's Block-house and goes to Fort Franklin Ray Captured and Gregg Killed by the Savages— The Former taken to Detroit, but Finally Gains his Freedom Capture and Death of Darius Mead— Un- settled State of French Creek Valley Mead's Block-house CJarrisoned by Ensign Bond Indians Attack James Dickson— Cornelius Van Home raises a Company of Volunteers to Protect the Settlement— The Settlers Erect a Blockhouse at Meadville Fearless Character of the Pioneers Findlay and iMcCormick Killed by the Indians- Raid on William Power's Camp by the Same Band and Capture of James Thompson- Closing Events of Indian Hostility.

CHAPTER VI.— Northwestern Pennsylva- nia 191-205

Formation of Counties Territory Em- braced in Allegheny County Erection of Crawford County and Location of the Seat of Justice at Meadville Surrounding Coun- ties Erected and Temporarily Attached to Crawford for Judicial Purposes— The Mer- cer and Erie County Boundary Lines Estab- lished—Biography of Col. William Crawford, After Whom the County was Named— His Useful Career and Cruel Death Location and Boundaries of Crawford County— Town- 8hips,Size, Area and General Appearance

PAGE.

Population Statistics French Creek— The Stream as a Highway of Navigation- New Channel at Meadville— Its Tributaries Cussewago and Other Streams— Oil Creek Conneaut Creek Shenango and Crooked Creek— Lake Conneaut— Oil Creek Lake- Sugar Lake.

CHAPTER VII.— Topographical Features

OF Crawford County 205-225

Elevations, Surface Dip and Physical Phenomena of Streams , Lakes and Swamps Drainage of Conneaut Marsh Pymatun- ing Swamp— Geological Series— Drift— Bur- ied Valleys Pottsville Conglomerate Homewood Sandstone, Mercer Group, Cono- quenssing and Sharon Sub-conglomerate Formations Shenango, Meadville and Oil Lake Groups— Venango Oil Sand Group- Venango Upper Sandstone, Upper Shales, Middle Sandstone, Lower Shales and Lower Sandstone.

CHAPTER VIII.-Lands 226-2::!5

Land Provision made for Pennsylvania Soldiers of the Revolution by the Act of 1780— Depreciation Certificates— Act of 17«<3 Depreciation Lands Donation Lands Survey and Distribution of Military Lauds West of the Allegheny River— tJnseated Lands Act of 1792 Prevention Clause in said Act, and the Litigation and Troubles Arising Therefrom— Organization of Land Companies Holland Land Company Pennsylvania Population Company North American Land Company— John Reynolds' Reminiscences of the Conflict Between the Settlers and Land Companies and the In- jury Thereby Inflicted on the Settlement and Prosperity of the County.

CHAPTER IX. Agriculture 2.36-246

First Land Cultivated by the Pioneers in the Valley of French Creek, and First Corn Crop Planted— Pioneer Nursery Introduc- tion of Potatoes. Wheat, Rye, Buckwheat, Oats, Barley, Etc.— Rapid Increase of the Cereals— Horses and Cattle^ Merino Sheep brought into the County Anecdote of a Sheep Speculation— Swine of the Past and the Present Stock and Land in 1826 Wool Production Leading Fine Stock Breeders, Dealers and Importers— Agricultural Socie- ties of Crawford County— Agricultural Im- plements, their Changes and Wonderful Im- provements during the Past Century— Pio- neer Mode of Farming Dairy Interests- First Cheese Factories Erected in the County— Their Rapid Increase and Present Prosperity of the Business Dairymen's As- sociation— Dairymen's Board of Trade.

CHAPTER X.— Primitive Appearance of

Crawford County 249-262

Timber and Fruit Bearing Trees and Vines— Roots and Herbage— Pioneer Days and Trials Habitations of the First Settlers Furniture, Food and Medicines Habits, Labor and Dress— Early Manners and Cus- toms— "Bees" and Weddings The Hom- iny Block and Pioneer Mills Store Cioods and Produce— Old Cash Book at Fort Frank- lin—Mode of Living— Churches and Schools —Period of 1812-15— Alfred Huidekoper's List of Wild Animals, Birds and Reptiles— An Old Settler— Game— The Inhabitants of Northwestern Pennsylvania Petition the Legislature to Enact a Law for the Destruc- tion of Squirrels— Hunts Inaugurated— Pheasants, Pigeons, Bees and Fish— Wolves- Premium on Wolf and Fox Scalps— Bears- Panther Fur Bearing Animals The Rattle-snake and other Pests of Early Times.

CHAPTER XL— Internal Improvements..263-286 Early Roads and Navigation— Salt Trade

CONTENTS.

Discovery and Manufacture of Salt in Crawford County— Freightage of Salt Be- tween Erie and Pittsburgh Turnpike Roads State Appropriations for Navigation and Roads— Old State Road— County Ex- penditures for Roads and Bridges from 1804 to 1834— Mode of Travel in Pioneer Days- Plank Roads— First Bridges Built Across French Creek Stage Lines and Mail Routes Boating and Navigation on French Creek Canals and Canal Building French Creek Feeder and the Beaver and Erie Canal Introduction of Steamboats on the Alle-' gheny, and Slack-water Navigation on French Creek Completion of the Beaver and Erie Canal Railroads of Crawford County.

CHAPTER XII.— The Burr Conspiracy, etc.

286-294

One of Burr's Agents Visits Meadville and Enlists Men for the Expedition Capture of Boats on the Ohio— The Democracy of Craw- ford County Hold a Celebration at Mead- ville to Rejoice Over the Failure of the Con- spiracy— Suggestive Toasts Drank on the Occasion The Federalists Take Ottense.and attempt Retaliation Partisan Strife Be- comes Bitter, but Finally Dies out and Peace Prevails Religious Phenomena of Pioneer Days^-Strange Actions of Those Affected- Vivid Descriptions of the Excite- ment— Early Murders Killingcif a Squaw in Meadville Murder of Hugh Fitzpatrick by Van Holland— Arrest, Trial and Execution of the Murderer Hanging of Lamphier for Killing Constable Smith Charles Higgen- bottom Killed by George Gosnell The Lat- ter Sent to the Penitentiary— Slavery in Crawford County John Brown of Ossawa- tomie.

CHAPTER XIIL— Judiciary 295-311

Pioneer Courthouses, Their Simplicity and Many Uses— First Buildings Used for County Purposes in Crawford County First Term of Court and Amusing Incident Connected Therewith— Second Session and First (hand Jury Impaneled— Indictments Found by This Jury— Pioneer Mode of Set- tling Disagreements Anecdote of Judge Mead— Second Grand Jury First Jury Trial in Crawford County Early Practice and Practitioners The Bench and Bar President, District and Additional Law Judges Associate Judges Deputy Attor- ney-Generals and District Attorneys United States Courts— The IVIen Who Organ- ized the First Court at Meadville Brief Biographies of Leading Members of the Bench and Bar— Present Bar of the County Resident Attorneys out of Practice De- ceased Attorneys.

CHAPTER XIV.— Official Roster 311-320

Members of Congress State Senators State Representatives Prothonotaries Clerks— Registers and Recorders Sheriffs Commissioners Treasurers Surveyors

Coroners— County Buildings and County Farm— The Old State Arsenal.

CHAPTER XV.— Education, etc 321-.3.30

The Old Block-house Wherein the First School in Crawford County Was Taught— The Act Erecting the County Provides for a Seminary of Learning at the County Seat Pioneer Schoolhouses— School Law of 1809 Free Schools Established in 1834— Nationality and Educational Characteristics of the Early Settlers Teachers of Pioneer Days Organ- ization of the Crawford County Teachers' Institute Its Growth and Progress and the Work It has Accomplished School Law of 1854 Office of County Superintendent Created Establishment of Normal Schools Superintendents Since 1854 Present Con- dition of the Schools— Crawford County Medical Society Homoeopathic Medical Society of Crawford County Crawford County INIutual Insurance Company— Farm- ers' Mutual Fire Insurance of Crawford County.

CHAPTER XVI,— Military History !..331-.343

English Intrigue and Indian Hostility Tecumseh and the Battle of Tippecanoe War of 1812-1.5— Preparing for the Conflict —Organization of the Militia— Gen. David Mead and Brigade-Inspector William Clark Engaged in the Work— Military Camp Es- tablished at Meadville by Gen. Tannehill's Brigade— Political Trouble Between the Sol- » iers While in Camp The Comruaud Leaves irthe Front— Excitement Caused by Hull's cflrjTender Patriotism of the Pioneers- Tanaehill's Brigade Disband Testimonial to Maj. James Herriott— Recruiting OfiBce at Meadville— Building of Perry's Fleet Gen. Mead's Stirring Appeal to the People —Perry's Letter of Thanks to Gen. Mead- Battle of Lake Erie Second Letter from Perry to Mead Mead's Troops Stationed at Erie in 1813-14— Capt. Morris Recruiting at Meadville List of Officers Peace Pro- claimed— Brief Review of the War Mexi- can War.

CHAPTER XVII.— Crawford County in the

War of the Rebellion 344-365

Patriotic Feeling Among its People Meet- ing Held to I)enounce Treason and Uphold the Government— First Volunteers Sent to the Front— Erie Regiment— Thirty-eighth Regiment, Ninth Reserve— Thirty-ninth Regiment, Tenth Reserve— Fifty-seventh Regiment— Fifty-ninth Regiment, Second Cavalry Eighty-third Regiment One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment One Hundred and Thirteenth Regiment, Twelfth Cavalry— One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Regiment One Hundred and Thirty- seventh Regiment— One Hundred and For- ty-fifth Regiment— One Hundred and Fif- tieth Regiment One Hundred and Sixty- third Regiment, Eighteenth Cavalry— One Hundred and Ninetieth and Ninety-first Regiment Two Hundred and Eleventh Regiment— Close of the War.

PAET III.

MEADVILLE AND TITUSVILLE.

CHAPTER I.— Meadville..

Appearance and Topography of the City —The Town Laid Out by David Mead— First Sales of Lots and the Purchasers Anecdote of the First Survey Pioneers Resurvey and Enlargement of the Town Plat— Brief Sketches of Those Who Located Perma- nently in Meadville Prior to 1805— Early

PAGE.

Physicians Natural Phenomena of Pio- neer Days— Strange Psychological Phenome- non — Visit of LaFayette Meadville in 1830— Business Men Then Residing Here- Old Houses Yet Remaining— The Changes Which Fifty-four Years Have Wrought in the Town.

CONTENTS.

PAGE.

CHAPTER II.— Religious History 389-403

First Presbyterian Church— Second Pres- byterian Church— Cumberland Presbyterian and United Presbyterian Churches— First Methodist Episcopal Church— State Street Methodist Episcopal Church— African Meth- odist Episcopal Church— Christ Protestant Episcopal Church Independent Congrega- tional Church— First Baptist Church— Lu- theran Evangelical Trinity Church St. Paul's Reformed Church— St. Agatha's Cath- olic Church— St. Bridget's Catholic Church Meadville Hebrew Society— First Evan- gelical Protestant Church— Park Avenue Congregational Church.

CHAPTER III.— Schools of Me.\dville..404-426 The Old Block-house Remodeled by David Mead for School Purposes First School Opened in the Town— Night School- Mead- ville Academy Founded by the Legislature Original Subscribers to the Fund for Its Establishment— The Academy Opened Un- der Rev. Joseph Stockton Its Early Teach- ers and Future Progress Free Schools Growth of Exiucation in Jleadville and Present Condition of the Schools Alle- gheny College— History of the Institution from Its Inception to the Present Time Meadville Theological School— Meadville Business College.

CHAPTER IV.— Newspapers, etc 426-443

Crawford Weekly Messenger Allegheny Magazine Western Standard Meadvitfi Gazette Unitarian Essayist Western f««^>' Meadville Courier— Crawford DemofrahX- Statesman American Citizen Democratic Republican Meadville Gazette Crawford Journal— Pennsylvania Sentinel- Cussewa-

go Chronicle— Spirit of the Age— Meadville Republican Meadville Index Crawford County Post— Meadville Reporter— Demo- cratic Messenger— Messenger Democrat- Morning News— National Vindicator— Chau- tauquan— Chautauqua Assembly Herald- Pennsylvania Farmer— Meadville Tribune —Past and Present Manufacturing Inter- ests of the City.

CHAPTER v.— Meadville, Concluded 443-462

Incorporation of Meadville as a Borough -First Election of Otficers— Meadville Be- comes a City— Population of the Town by Decades Since 1800-Burgesses— Mavors— Postmasters— The Old Cemetery— (jreen- dale Cemetery— City Hall— Market House— St. .Joseph's Hospital— Meadville City Hos- pital—Fire Department— Meadville (ias and Water Company —Electric Light— Meadville Water Company Telegraph, Telephone and ExpressCompanies—Bauks— Hotels— Secret and Other Societies— Pioneer Shows and Public Halls— Public Library— Parks— Con- clusion.

CHAPTER VI.— Titusville 462-475

Historical Early Settlements First Things— Lumbering Industry— Discovery of Petroleum Oil Companies Organized— Oil Wells— Refineries— Great Oil Fire— Oil Ex- change— Industries.

CHAPTER VII.— Titusville, Concluded...476-4'J1 Incorporation— City Hall Water Works Gas and Water Company Fire Compa- nies—Sewers—Banking—Library Associa- tion— Agricultural Association The Press Schools Churches Cemeteries Societies Miscellaneous.

PAET IT.

TOWNSHIP HISTORIES.

CHAPTER I.— Athens Township 495-501

Boundary Lands Early Settlements- Organization Population— Streams Rail- roads— Topography Timber Industries Schools— Post Offices— Little Cooley— First Settlers Industries, etc. Churches.

CHAPTER II— Beaver Township 502-505

Erection Boundaries Physical Features —Industries Land Titles Settlements- Salt Industry Mills Schools —Beaver Cen- ter— Churches.

CHAPTER III Bloompield Township and

Borough of Riceville 505-513

Organization— Boundaries— Physical Fea- tures — Lands Early Settlers Thomas Bloomfield— Richard Shreve— Other Settlers —Money— Schools— Lincolnville— Churches Chapman ville Bloomfield Cheese Fac- tories— Mills.

Borough of Riceville 511

Incorporation— Officers— Early Settlers Schools— Industries— Churches— Societies.

CHAPTER IV.— Cambridge Township and

Borough of Cambridgeboro 513-521

Formation Location Name— Physical Features— Early Settlers— Drake's Mills- Schools.

Borough of Cambridgeboro 516

Location Population Settlement- Growth— Business— The Rail road— Present

Industries— Incorporation— Officers— News- paper — Churches Societies The Con- servatory of Music Schools.

CHAPTER v.— Conneaut Township 522-526

Organization— Boundaries— Name— Phys- ical Features Area and Population Land Companies First Purchasers Early Set- tlers— Mills Schools Friends Churches Summit Penn Line Steamburg.

CHAPTER VI.— CussEWAGO Township 526-532

Formation and Boundaries Name Streams Soil Population I^irst Owners- Pioneer Life Early Settlers— Mills Cheese Factories— Schools Mosiertown- Crossing- ville Churches.

CHAPTER VII.— East Fairfield Township

and Borough of Cochranton 533-540

Petition Election Physical Features Titles— Trials of Pioneers— First Settlers- Early School Teachers Shaw's Landing Pettis Postoffice-Stitzerville— Churches.

Borough of Cochranton 535

Petition Election Officers Name Population and Present Industries— School Press Churches Societies Cemetery.

CHAPTER VIII.— East Fallowfield Town- ship 541-545

Fallowfield and Boundaries— Division of the Original Township Physical Features

CONTENTS.

PAGE.

Population Company Contracts— First Set- tlers—Other Settlers— Early ifchools— Lost Child Mills Atlantic Societies Churches.

CHAPTKR IX.— F.4IKF1ELD To-\v>-ship 546-552

Boundaries— Location— Physical Features Population First Settlers Lands Later Settlements Conscription State Road Library Association— Schools— Great Snow Mill Calvin's Corners Churches.

CHAPTER X.— Greenwood Township and

Borough of Geneva 552-559

Location— Area Population Physical Features— Field's Claim— Early Settlers- Early Mills Distilleries— Early Teachers Glendale West Greenwood Mills Churches.

Borough of Geneva 556

Population Incorporation Election^ Offi- cers-Early Residents— Schools— Churches —Societies.

CHAPTER XL— Hayfield Township 559-564

Organization Area Physical Features Population Early Settlers Land Titles Pioneer Trials Mills Schools Churches Hayfield— Coon's Corners.— Norrisville.

CHAPTER XII.— Mead Township 5G4-575

Formation Size^Valuation^Population Boundaries Rev.Timothy Alden, on Mead Township Early Settlers Titles from the Holland Land Company— Other Settlers Mills Wayland Frenchtown Bousson Schools Churches.

CHAPTER XIII.— North Shenango Town- ship 576-579

Original Township Subdivision Popula- tion— Physical Features Mounds Espy- ville Station— Espyville Postofflce— Churches —Land Titles— Early Settlers— Mills— Dis- tilleries— Early Teachers.

CHAPTER XIV —Oil Creek Township and

Borough of Hydetown 579-585

Erection Boundaries Physical Features —Land Titles— Early Settlers— Early Mer- chants— Postoffice— Slills Distilleries Oil Wells Early Teachers Religion Churches-Kerr's Hill.

Borough of Hydetown 584

First Settlers Early Business Interests School— Present Business— Incorporation Officers Churches The Equitable Aid Union Literary Society.

CHAPTER XV.— Pine Township and Borough

of Linesville —586-595

Population— Organization— Name— Physi- cal Features— Land Companies Deeds Early Settlers— Colt's New Station.

Borough of Linesvili.e 591

Location Origin^Plat Recorded Post- office— Early Settlers— Mill— Press— School Churches Societies Police Company Incorporation Business Professions.

CHAITER XVI.— Randolph Township 595-601

Location Organization Lands Popula- tion — Physical Features Settlements Land Titles— Pioneers— Soldiers' Titles- Later Settlers— Mills— Schools— Guy's Mills —Societies— Churches.

CHAPTER XVII.— Richmond Township... 601-605 Boundaries Physical Features Dona- tion Lands— Soldiers' Claims— Pioneers— Tannery— Mills— Cheese Factories— Early Schools New Richmond Lyona Ceme- teries— Churches.

CHAPTER XVIII.— Rockdale Township...605-612 Original Boundaries Present Limits Population— Physical Features— Early Mills —Land Titles— Early Settlers— Other Mills —First Schools— Roads— Miller's Station— Church— Cemetery— Brown Hill.

CHAPTER XIX.— Rome Township and

BoROU(iH OF Centreville 612-620

Organization— Boundaries— Area —Popu- lation—Physical Features— Land Titles— Pioneers— Early Tax Payers— Mills— Early School Teachers Churches.

Borough of Centreville gig

Incorporation— Election Officers— Early Settlement- Present Business Interests- School— Cemeterv—t hurches— Societies.

CHAPTER XX.— Sadsbury Township and

Borough of Evansbufg 620-625

Original Boundaries Present Area Pop- ulation—Canal— Railroads— Conneaut Lake- Physical Features Land Companies Early Settlers— Distilleries Early Teachers Shermanville—Aldenia— Stony I'oint Post- office

Borough of Evansburg 623

Location— Incorporation Hotels— Popu- lation— Business Religious Organizations —Societies— The Fouudei Early Settleis and Business Pursuits.

CHAPTER XXL— South Shenango Town- ship 625-630

Erection— Population— Physical P'eatures Westford Marshall's Corners McLean's Corners— Population Company f'ontracts Early Settlers— Indians— First Teachers- Religious Organizations.

CHAPTER XXIL— Sparta Township and

Borough of Spartansburg

Boundaries Erection Population

Physical Features— Mills— Land Companies

—Early Pioneers— Early Justice— Early

School Teachers.

Borough of Spartansburg 633

Location Business Early Settlers

First Name Incorporation Officers

Religious Organization Societies.

CHAPTER XXIIL Spring Township and

Boroughs of Conneautville and Spring 635-652

Name Physical Features Population- Land Titles— Early Settlers— Adventures of Pioneers— Early Mills— Lumbering Early Schools Teachers Religious Organizations Rundel's Postoffice. BOROUGHOF Conneautville 642

Incorporation Election Officers— Fire Department Population Canal Days- Present Industries— Mercantile Pursuits- Alexander Power Original Plat First Settlers— Press— Bank— Cemetery— Agricul- tural Societies Schools— Churches— Socie- ties. Borough of Spring 650

Location Population Business— First Settlers Postofflce Incorporation Elec- tion— Officers School Churches Societies.

CHAPTER XXIV.- Steuben Township and

Borough of Townville 6.53-6.58

Erection Boundaries Lands Early Settlers Lumbering Early Mills Tryon- ville Proposed Railroad Clappville Tryonville Methodist Episcopal Church.

Borough of Townville 6.56

Incorporation Officers Population Business Interests— Name— Early Residents Schools— Press— Religious Organizations- Societies.

CHAPTER XXV —SuMMERHiLL Township 658-662 Boundaries— Organization— Physical Fea- tures—Pioneers—Land Titles— Distilleries— Mills— Early School Dick,sonburg Reli- gious Organizations Society.

CONTENTS.

PAGE.

CHAPTER XXVI.— Summit Township ...662-667

Boundaries Formation Population Physical Features First Settlements- Land Titles Pioneers Conneaut Lake— Cemeteries— Early Methodist Organization —Canal— Peat and Marl— Mills— Religious Organizations Harmonsburg- Churches- Lodges.

CHAPTER XXVII.— Troy Township ...668-672

Boundaries Organization Election Population Physical Features Land Tracts— Troubles of Early Settlers Pio- neers—Early Deaths and Burials Mills Schools— Troy Center— Newtontown— Reli- gious Organizations.

CHAPTER XXVIIL— Union Township 672-67.5

Petition Proposed Bounds— Election- Physical Features Population Early Set- tlements—Killing by Indians- Early Deeds Other Pioneers Religious Organization -Mills.

CHAPTER XXIX— Venango Township and

Borough OF Venango 675-680

Organization Boundaries Physical Features— Name Early Settlers— Distillery Mills Religious Societies.

Borough of Venango 678

First Settlement Industries Incorpor- ation — Officers Population Business Schools— Religious Organizations— Societies.

CHAPTER XXX.— Vernon Township and

Borough of Vallonia 680-685

Organization Population Physical Feat- ures — Industries— First Settlers— Holland Company Titles Kerrtown Fredericks- burg or Stringtown Religious Organiza- tions.

Borough of Vallonia 684

Location Incorporation Election Popu- lation— Growth First Residents Distillery Postoffice School Mission Chapel.

CHAPTER XXXI.— Wayne Township 685-688

Formation Limits Population Physi- cal Features— Sugar Lake— Indians— Rattle-

PAGE.

Deer Wild Animals Titles- Early Settlers— Mills— Schools— Decardville Religious Oganizations.

CHAPTER XXXII. West Fallowfield Township and Borough of Harts- town 689-(

Formation Population Physical Fea- tures—Pennsylvania Population Land Ti- tles-Early Settlers Early Presbyterian Congregation Adamsville Religious Organizations Schools.

Borough of Hartstown

Incorporation Officers— Location —Pop- ulation—Business Houses— Name— Churches —A. O. U. W.

CHAPTER XXXIII.— West Shenango Town- ship

Petition— Elections Population— Physi- cal Features— Penn Population Company Titles— Early Settlers— Early Mills— Cheese Factory— Early Teachers Turnersville— Religious Organizations.

CHAPTER XXXIV.— Woodcock Township AND boroughs of Blooming Valley

Saegertown and Woodcock 695-705

Boundaries— Erection— Population— Phys- ical Features Early Settlements and Settlers Holland Land Company Tit es— Actual Set- tlers— Other Pioneers Schools Taverns Gravevards Mills Cheese Factory Paper Mill.

Borough of Blooming Valley- 699

Location Population Name Postoffice —Village Plat— Business Interests— Schools Press Incorporation Election Officers Religious Organizations Societies.

Borough of Saegertown 801

Location Population The Founder Early Business Incorporation Officers Present Business Cemetery Schools- Churches Societies.

Borough of Woodcock 803

Location Population Rockville Kep- lertown First Settlers Incorporation Offi- cers—Present Business— Societies— Churches Grange— Fairs.

PAET Y.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.

Meadville 709

Athens Township 776

Beaver Township 788

Bloomfield Township 791

Cambridge Township 800

Conneaut Township 819

Cussewago Township 841

East Fairfi^d Township 857

East Fallowfield Township 863

Fairfield Township 864

Greenwood Township 869

Hayfield Township 871

Mead Township 891

North Shenango Township 904

Oil Creek Township 913

Pine Township 919

Randolph Township 925

Richmond Township 943

Rockdale Township 962

Rome Township 970

Sadsbury Township 985

South Shenango Township 993

Sparta Township 999

Spring Township lOlO

Steuben Township IO66

Summerhill Township 1055

Summit Township 1080

Titusville 1088

Troy Township lioi

Union Township 1107

Venango Township 1112

Vernon Township 1123

Wayne Township 1137

West Fallowfield Township 1139

West Shenango Township 1141

Woodcock Township 1143

Jamestown, Mercer County 1184

CONTENTS. PORTBAITS.

PAGE.

Bemus Dr., Daniel, Meadville 46

Brawley Francis, Mead Township 187

Britton A. T., Randolph Township 267

Brown Gideon, Vernon Township 547

Birchard D. D., Cambridge Township 167

Chamberlain E., Richmond Township 367

Culbertson J. H., Cambridfje Township 218

Cutshall G. W., Randolph Township 378

Davis Wm., Jr., Meadville 134

Davis James H., Mead Township 178

Dick John, Meadville 79

Doane I. S., Mead Township 307

Gamble W. J., Cussewago Township 348

Gamble Mrs. Esther Jane, C'nssewago Township.. 349

Gamble H. M., South Shenango Township 387

Gibson Dr. William, Jamestown, Mercer County. 207

Herrington Edward, Union Township 158

Hotchkiss Mrs. Elizabeth, Cussewago Township.. 607

Humes John M., Woodcock Township 407

Johnson Dr. Wm. M., Venango Township 438

Johnson R. C, Fairfield Township 227

Kean John S., Sadsbury Township 527

Kepler S. W., Meadville 538

Mclvav Neal, Randolph Township 278

Miller" Robert P., Pine Township 447

Morse William, Richmond Township 298

PAGE.

Pettis S. Newton, Meadville 487

Reitz C, Union Township 458

Richmond H. L., Meadville 197

Richmond A. B., Meadville 247

Ross A. B., Cambridge Township 258

Ryan Geo. P., Woodcock Township 497

Sperry Isaac, Spring Township 398

Virtue J. C, Randolph Township 558

Waid John, Steuben Township 427

Waid Ira C, Woodcock Township 147

Waid Mrs. Elizabeth P., Woodcock Township... 148

Waid Francis C, Woodcock Township 328

Waid Mrs. Eliza C, Woodcock Township 329

Waid Robert L., Woodcock Township 507

Waid George N., Woodcock Township 518

Waid Franklin I,, Woodcock Township 568

Waid Mrs. Maggie E., Woodcock Township 569

Waid Guiunip P., Woodcock Township 588

Waid Mrs. Anna M., Woodcock Township 589

Waid Fred F., Woodcock Township 618

Warner William, Randolph Township 287

Wilcox George, Rockdale Township 468

Wilcox Mrs. Sarah, Rockdale Township 469

Williams F„ Spring Township 418

Wilson Jacob, Randolph Township 238

Wing D. 0., Rockdale Township 318

MISCELLANEOUS.

Map of Crawford County between 12 and 13

Map Showing Various Purchases from the Indians 113

Diagram Showing Proportionate Annual Production of Anthracite Coal since 1820 118

Table Showing Amount of Anthracite Coal Produced in Each Region Since 1820 119

I Jam estovi/zv

>^NjLL_iU

PART I.

History«'Pennsylvania,

BY SAMUEL P. BATES.

"God, that has given it xne through n^iany difficulties, "Will, I believe, bless and niake it the seed of a nation. I shall have a tender care to the government that it be vv^ell laid at first. ----- I do, therefore, desire the Lord's -wisdom to guide me, and those that may be concerned ■with me, that "we may do the thing that is truly -wise and just."

WILLIAM PENN.

HISTORY OF PENNSYLVANIA.

OHAPTEE I.

Introductory Cornelis Jacobson Mey, 1624-25— William Yan Hulst, 1625- 36— Peter Minuit, 1626-33— David Petersen de Vries, 1632-33— Wouter Van Twiller, 1633-38.

IN the early colonization upon the American continent, two motives were principally operative. One was the desire of amassing sudden wealth without great labor, which tempted adventurous spirits to go in search of gold, to trade valueless trinkets to the simple natives for rich furs and skins, and even to seek, amidst the wilds of a tropical forest, for the fountain whose healing waters could restore to man perpetual youth. The other was the cherished purpose of escaping the unjust restrictions of Government, and the hated ban of society against the worship of the Supreme Being according to the honest dictates of conscience, which incited the humble devotees of Christianity to forego the comforts of home, in the midst of the best civilization of the age, and make for themselves a habitation on the shores of a new world, where they might erect altars and do homage to their God in such habiliments as they preferred, and utter praises in such note as seemed to them good. This pur- pose was also incited by a certain romantic temper, common to the race, es- pecially noticeable in youth, that invites to some uninhabited j spot, and Ras- selas and Robinson Crusoe- like to begin life anew.

William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, had felt the heavy hand of persecution for religious opinion's sake. As a gentleman commoner at Ox- ford, he had been fined, and finally expelled from that venerable seat of learn- ing for non-comf ormity to the established worship. At home, he was whipped and turned out of doors by a father who thought to reclaim the son to the more certain path of advancement at a licentious court. He was sent to prison by the Mayor of Cork. For seven months he languished in the tower of Lon- don, and, finally, to complete his disgrace, he was cast into Newgate with com- mon felons. Upon the accession of James II, to the throne of England, over fourteen hundred persons of the Quaker faith were immured in prisons for a conscientious adherence to their religious convictions. To escape this harassing persecution, and find peace and quietude from this sore proscription, was the moving cause which led Penn and his followers to emigrate to America.

Of all those who have been founders of States in near or distant ages, none have manifested so sincere and disinterested a spirit, nor have been so fair ex- emplars of the golden rule, and of the Redeemer's sermon on the mount, as William Penn. In his preface to the frame of government of his colony, he says: " The end of government is first to terrify evil-doers; secondly, to cher- ish those who do well, which gives government a life beyond corruption, and

16 HISTORY OF PENNSYLVANIA.

makes it as durable in the world, as good men shall be. So that government seems to be a part of religion itself, a thing sacred in its institution and end. For, if it does not directly remove the cause, it crushes the effects of evil, and is an emanation of the same Divine power, that is both author and object of pure religion, the difference lying here, that the one is more free and mental, the other more corporal and compulsive in its operations; but that is only to evil-doers, government itself being otherwise as capable of kindness, goodness and charity,