west Re

Ss ie Nei Dig ;




By J.C. LOUDON, F.L.S. H.S. &c.







Printed by A. & R. Spottiswoode, New-Street-Square.


Iw this Third Volume of the Gardener’s Magazine, the reader will find some improvements on the plan of the former Volumes. These are, the accentuation of botanic names; the indication of generic names as, commemorative, classical, aboriginal, or composed ; and, when specific names are Englished, the literal meaning given. The details and the advantages of these improvements are ex- plained in Vol. II. p. 447.

Taking a general view of the improvements in gardening which are recorded in this Volume, the leading feature, and one of very considerable interest in the exotic department, is the mode of heating hot-houses by hot water. Though the invention was made above half a century ago in France, and applied there for artificial incubation, as well as to the hot-houses in the Jardin des Plantes, it does not appear to have been introduced into England till the year 1815, when the house No. 1. in Russel Place, London, was heated in this manner by the Comte Chabannes, and afterwards the hot-houses at Sundridge Park by the same individual, in 1816 and 1817. The use of steam withdrew for atime the attention of engineers from the subject of hot water; but that element has again been resorted to, apparently without any knowledge of what had been already done by others, by Mr. Whale and Mr. Atkinson. Neither of these gentlemen, it appears, was aware of M. Bonne- main’s invention in Paris, in 1777, or the Comte Chabanne’s oper- ations in London and at Sundridge Park. Mr. Tredgold (p. 427.) has claimed for Mr. Atkinson the merit of having first success- fully applied the hot water system to hot-houses in England ; and, unquestionably, Mr. Atkinson’s apparatus of 1822, is more simple than that of the Comte Chabannes at Sundridge Park of 1816, though not more effectual. ‘The details of which the above is the summary, will be found in pages 186. 254. 365. 368. and 423—432.; and further information on the subject, received even since this Preface was prepared for the press, is unavoidably reserved for our succeeding Volume.

Some most desirable acquisitions to Floriculture are described in the analysis of botanical works in our Catalogue raisonnée ; and we refer to pages 342. 385., and Vol. II. p. 460., for some Dutch and German practices, which, if adopted in this country, would, at an easy rate, increase the enjoyments of the wealthy who possess gardens; prove profitable to the tradesman gardener ; and advantageous to the public consumer of garden vegetables.

J.C. L. London, Bayswater, Feb. 1828. AZ


A. B., of Warwick = - Page 382 A Complaining Gardener - 360 A Constant and Approving Reader - 371 A Constant Reader, &c. - 119. 376, 381 A Denbighshire Gardener = - 19 A Female Critic co S - 121 A Friend to Improvement - 254 A. G., of Lynn - 5 dY/ Agricola, of Lincolnshire S - 155 Agronome - 15. 151, 287 A Horticultural Apothecary - - 244 A Horticultural Sailor C 5 AG A Kentish Reader 3 - 120 An Amateur : = = QP An Enquirer 2 - 254 A Nobleman’s Gardener 5 a Pig A Philadelphia Nurseryman k - 349 A Pine Grower 5 - 120 Arnott, Mr., of Perth = S ilily/ A.'S. 5 - 354 A Subscriber = oS SG A Subscriber and F.H. Ss. - - 108 A Surrey Reader - - - 381 A.W. 5 2 - 959 A Wellwisher - & E

A, oe - S = 255 A. Y. S 5 - 381 B.

Baillie, Mr. William, Gardener, at Dropmore 25

Babington, Mr. Charles C. - 216

Barnet, Mr. James, Curator of the Experimental Garden of the Cal. Hort. Soc. -

Barrow, Mr. John, Manufacturing Smith, Lon-

don - - - - 423 B. Battle - 352 Bisset, Mr. A. , Gardener, at Methven - 170 Blaikie, Thomas, Esq. M.C.H. = Cc. M. ft S.,

Paris - 207 B. M. H. = & Sm ele B., of Edinburgh = - - 105 Botanicus = - - 490 Boyce, Mr. William - - 102 Braddick, John, Esq. F.H Si - - 353 Brown h Mr. James, jun., of Stowe - 117. 23

c - 376 Calvert, Mr. A. C., ‘of Rouen - - 334 Cameron Mr. Daniel, - - 149 Cameron, Mr. David, A.LS. - a iil Cameron, Mr. John, Gardener, Camberwell 156 Carolus - - - - 121 Causidicus - - 370 C.F. W., of Fazeley - - 382. 409 C. H. D. - 119 Combeld, Mr. P., Florist, Northampton = 23

C.P., of York - 30 D. B. = FS - 5 NG D. F. - - = - 119 D. F., Edinburgh 2 = - 118 Donaia, Mr., FHLS. - = =) 283

217 Falconar, David, Esq., Carlowrie, Kirkliston,

near Edinburgh 488 Faldermann, Mr. Francis, C. H. S: - 300 Floristicus - 360, 380 F.N. B. - 145 pores. Mr. J., Gardener to the Duke of Bed-

yee = - nul

Fulton, Mr. George, Gardener, Northwick Park

Page 405 Gauen, Mr: Robert, of Millbrook 34. 101. 170 G. B, and_N., Lynn = - - 470 G. B., of Wellesburn = - 359

Gibb, Mr. David, Gardener to the Dowager Marchioness of ‘Londonderry 9 Godsall, Mr. William, Nurseryman, Hereford, 9

Gorrie, Mr. Archibald, C.M.HLS, - 115. 253 Green, Mr. William = - 24. 379 Green, W., jun., Esq., crepe - oie 493 G..W. S . 378 1st 378

Hamilton, W. , Esq. MD., of Fareham, 157. 352

Harrison, Mr. Charles, F. i. S: - pe HVA. S. . 384 Hawkins, Mr. Thomas 92, 381 Hogg, Mr. ome pe Paddington 113. Bis ran re. ; 353, 989. 414 J M & Bet Ue - 217. 353. 383. TG Uae i - 240, 361. 476 J. M. = - 302 ob M., Brighton o = 12. 375 JM. Main) = 198, 149, 202, 256. 334 J. M. (not J, Main) = 117

Ingram, Mr. Thomas, Gardener to the “Prin- cess Augusta, Frogmore - 13 Johnson, G. W., Esq. 129, 269. 400 Johnston, Sir Alexander, Knt. V.P. R.A.S., for- merly Chief Justice and President of His Ma-

jesty’s Council in Ceylon = - 99 Je: = : = - 370 Jabs B: = : 2 a hee J. R. K: - 106 Irvine, G. W., Esq. > Post-ofice, Dublin - 471 J. S., South Wales - 380 ue aYa Perthshire = - =U, J. Y., Yarmouth s = - 121 Lambie, Mr. A. C. = - - 291 Lee, Mr. Walter = S - 493 Luckock, Mr. James - - 280 M‘Murtrie, Mr., C.M.H.S. - - 352 Malus 281

Marnock, Mr. “Robert, Gardener, Bretton Hy Mather, Mr. G. M., Gardener, Nottingham

379. 417 Mathews, Mr. Ass ALS. - - 135 Mentor 3 - 20 M. H. 3 - 330.371 Middleton, Mr. Ke - - = 17 M., of Exmouth a 218

Moggridge, John, Esq. - 162. 410 Moore, Mr. William, Gardener, Green Street House, East Ham, Essex 354 Murray, John,}Esq. F.A.S. L.S. H. S. G.S. &e. ip)

Murray, Mr. SISLENS C.M.H.S. N.A.B.

o - - 380 Nash, Mr. James - - - 293 N. , Edinburgh - 118 Nelson, Mr. HEE Gardener, at Clifton - 141 INp Gs = - 482 Olitor 359

Otto, Mr., C.M. aH: S, Director of the Botanic Garden, Berlin - 92. 94 Petersen, Mr. J. P., of Copenhagen -


Vv Philo-Olitorum = Page 231 | Suffolciensis Page 25. 122. 377 Powell, Mr.F. ,Gardener, New Court, near Here-| Superficial, Brixton Villa - - 293, 487. 494 ford - 581} Sutherland, Mr. Robert - 278 Prince, Mr. William, of. the Linnean Botanic | Swainson, William, Esq. F.R. s. F.L.S. &c. Garden, New York = - 97. 212. 465 205, 378 Pringle, Mr. James, Gardener, at Truro - 140| Sweet, Robert, RIES - S - 297 Quercus So - - 284| TB. - - 485 eae Secundus 3 - 285) F.C. H. 5 - 114 ., Esg. = - = - 128} Thonville, W., , Esa. - - 119 = = - 256) T. J. M. - - - 382 Reed, Mr. James 23) T*#* R—d_ - 382 Reeve, Mr. James, Gardener at Laxton Hau Tredgold, SHORES Esq., Civil Engineer, ron don - vere, T., jun. = - 353} Turner, Mr. R., of Grantham - 30. 102, 103 ELAN Lodge = - 119) Umbratus - 121 = - - 37/9] Vallet, Monsieur PAiné, of Rouen - 102 B.S. = - - 382 Variegata - = - 485 Rusticus in Urbe - - 118. 162, 493) Viator S = - - 346 Rusticus Sylvanus 2 = - 486| W. B.S. - 343 R.W. - - = - 375| Wells, Mr. T., of Bickley Gardens - 490 Ss. - - é = 99| W. G., of Swansea - 381 Saul, Mr. Mathias, Lancaster, - 121. 418, 421| W. G.W. 381, 382 Saunders, Mr. Richard, Gardener, Luscombe,| Williams, Mr. Thomas, Gardener, Ratcliffe Devonshire - - - 404 Lodge - = 216 Semina = c - - 382) W. M. Argyleshire - - 227. 412 Sensitivus - - - - 3/71) W.R R. ¥. - - 381. 290. 330 S. F. . - - 245) W.S. c a, 8B Shai, Mr. Charles - - - 278| W.S., near Nottingham = - 116 Shennan, Mr. William Johnston - 167) Y.B. = > 2 Sidey, Mr. Charles, JEON Perth - 472} Youell, Mr. J. 217 S., of Manchester - a Bay Young, Mr. James, Gardener at Wilford House Stecle, Andrew, Esq. 255 138 Stephens, Mr. James, Gardener, CarrHouse, 218) Z. - = - 377. 381 S.'E P. e a - 118) Zig-Zag - - ~ 365

Strathmoriensis 2 - 224:


Parr I.

On the Apple Tree, as trained against a Wall. By Mr. Charles Harrison, F.H.S. - Page 1 On the Preservation of Apples. By Mr. David Gibb, Gardener to the Dowager Marchioness of Londonderry, North Cray Place, Kent 9 On Prolonging the Season of Hardy Fruits. By Mr. J. Forbes, Gardener to His Grace the Duke of Bedford, at Woburn Abbey - ll On the Prolongation of the ripe Grape on the Vine. By J. M. - - - | On fixing Wire against Garden Walls for train- ing Fruit Trees. By Mr. Thomas Ingram, Gardener to Her Royal Highness the Prin- cess Augusta, at Frogmore - le Autobiography, and various hints. nome - - - Designs for a Vinery, by which the earliest and the latest grapes may be obtained in the same Structure. By Mr. A. Middleton - 1 On the Culture of the Potato, in respect to Kar- liness, the Curl, the Worm, and other Circum- stances. By a Denbighshire Gardener - 19 Description of a Structure, to be heated by Dung, for growing Cucumbers and Melons. By Mentor - - - - 20 Suggestions for a movable Cucumber Bed to be heated by Dung. By Mr. Thomas Hawkins 22 On a Mode of procuring a Crop of Cucumbers during Winter, by forming the Hot-bed within a Vinery. By Mr. James Reed - - 23 On a superior Method of raising the Vine from Layers. By Mr. W. Green. - - 24 Suggestions for Improvements on the Horticul- tural Memorandum Book of a Country Cler- gyman. By Suffolciensis 26 = 25 Account of a rapid and successful Mode of graft- ing the Orange. By Mr. James Reeve, Gar- dener to G. F. Evans, Esq. and Lady Car- berry, Laxton Hall, Northamptonshire - 26 Description of a new Tally for naming Plants, with a Note on grafting the Camellia. By Mr. Stewart Murray, C.M.H.S. o 3 Bs} Description of a Machine for dusting Fruit Trees with powdered Lime, or other Powder. By C. P. of York - S 90) Account of a successful Attempt to destroy A‘phis lanigera. By Mr. R. Turner. - 7d. Remarks on the disappointments incident to Or- chardists, and on describing and characteris- ing Fruit Trees. By W.R.Y: - ~ 3l Comparative View of the Expenses of a Gar- dener and a Butler to their Employer. By W.S. 82

By Agro- - 15

The Art of ornamenting, showing, preserving, and packing Cucumbers, Grapes, Plums, and other Fruits whose principal Beauty consists in their delicate Bloom. By Mr. Robert Gauen, Gardener at Milbrook, near South- ampton - - - - 34

Outlines of Horticultural Chemistry, &c. By G. W. Johnson, Esq., of Great Totham, Es- sex - - - - 129

Plan and Elevation of a Dairy Cottage, and Poultry-yard, erected by Mr. B. Matthews, at Syndal House, Kent, for the late Sir Samuel Auchmuty. Communicated by Mr. A. Mat- thews, A.LS. - = - 135

On preparing Ice and filling an Ice-house, so as the Ice may keep for Two or Three Years. By Mr. James Young, Gardener to Henry Seite Esq., of Wilford House, Nottingham- shire - - - 3

Notice of a Horticultural Plough and its Uses By Mr. William Gedsall, Nurseryman and Florist, Hereford = = - 159

Culture of the Gloridsa supérba. By Mr. James

Pringle, Gardener to Lewis Charles Daubuz

Esq., Truro, Cornwall . 2140

3 | On Salt and other Matters.


Culture ofthe Gloxinza maculata. By Mr. John Nelson, principal Gardener to William Miles,

Esq., Clifton, near Bristol _ - - Page 141 Reminiscences of a Visit to Malacca. By Mr. James Main - - 142

A Description of a Method of cultivating the Vine, by which it is thought Grapes may be ripened in many Parts of England for the Purpose of making Wine. By F. N. B, - 145

2| On grafting the Peach, Nectarine, and Apricot

on Stocks of theirown kind. By Mr. Daniel Cameron, late Gardener to Admiral Sir George Cockburn, at Highbeach, Essex - 149 By Agronome 151 On the Use of Salt in the Culture of the Hya- cinth. By Mr. Thomas Hogg, Florist, Pad- * dington - = - - 154 Result of certain Experiments in regard to the Use of Salt in Agriculture. By Agricola of Lincolnshire - c =w15D On the Conduct of Gardeners and their Em- ployers. By Mr. John Cameron, Gardener, Grove Lane, Camberwell - - 156. On the Culture of Hyperanthéra Moringa, or Horseradish Tree, in the West Indies. By W. Hamilton, Esq. M.D. Fareham, near Ply- mouth - - - - 157 On Paragréles, or Hail-Protectors, and their Employment in Britain. By John Murray, Esq. F.A.S. L.S. H.S. G.S. &e. - - 159 Note on Mr. Campbell’s Mode of growing the Hyacinth. By Rusticus in Urbe _-. 162 Further Particulars of an Experiment made with a View of bettering the Condition of the Labouring Classes. By John Moggridge, By

On the Construction and Use of Straw Mats for covering Hot-houses, and as a substitute for Russian Mats in covering Frames and Pits. By Mr. William Johnston Shennan, Gardener at Gunnersbury House, Middlesex 167

Notice of a Revolving Frame for Forcing, and the Culture of Exotics, the Invention of Mr. R. Gauen of Millbrook ; and of another Re- volving Forcing-Frame by Mr. Alexander Bisset, Gardener to Robert Smith, Esq., of

i Methven, Perthshire 170

Some Account of the Flower-gardens and the Pinetum at Dropmore, the Seat of Lord Gren- ville. By Mr. William Baillie, Gardener at Dropmore. Interspersed with general Re- marks on the Gardens and Grounds there, by the Conductor - - = 257

Outlines of Horticultural Chemistry, &c. By G. W. Johnson, Esq., of Great Totham, Es- sex. (Continued from p. 135.) - - 269

On the Culture and Propagation of the Genus Citrus. By an Amateur - - 272

On destroying the Red Spider in Hot-houses. By Mr. David Cameron, A.L.S., Gardener to Robert Barclay, Esq. F.L.S. H.S., Bury Hill, Surrey 3 = Aehibge - 277

On the Destruction of the American Blight on Fruit Trees. By Mr. Charles Sharp, of oss


On the Blight and Fire-blast on Fruit Trees. By Mr. Robert Sutherland, Gardener to J. F. N. Halsey, Esq., Gaddeston Park, Hertford- shire - S : - 278

On the various Uses of Rhubarb Stalks. By Mr. James Luckock, of Edgbaston, near Bir- mingham = = - 280

An Orchard in Miniature; or the Culture of Apple Trees as Dwarf Standards, after the Manner of Gooseberry Bushes. By Malus 281

Note of the Result of an Experiment made at Bretton Hall on pitting Apples. Ina Letter to Mr. Donald, of Weking. By Mr. Robert


Marnock, Foreman of the Kitchen-garden at Bretton Hall. Communicated by Mr. Donald, F.FLS. Page 283 On the Cultivation f Timber

and Management o

Trees. By Quercus - - ~ 284 The falling Fortunes of the English Oak de- defended. By Quercus Secundus - 285

How to conduct a Gardener’s Magazine, ‘and other Matters. By Agronome - 287 On Artificial Compost. By W. R. Y. - 290 On the Culture and Propagation of the Chry- santhemum indicum. By Mr. A.C. Lambie, Gardener to Sir George Sitwell, Bart., Reni- shaw Hall, near Chesterfield, Derbyshire 291 On the Conduct of Gardeners and their Em- ployers, with respect to giving and exchanging Plants and Seeds. By a Nobleman’s Gar- dener - - - 29) On propagating Pebdnia Movtan by grafting on Pebdnia officinalis. By Mr. James Nash, * Flower-gardener to Lady Farnborough, Brom- . ley Hill, Kent - - 293 On the Disappointments incident to Purchasers of Fruit Trees. By Superficial, of Brixton Villa, Brixton, Surrey - - 293 On the Rose Cockchaffer, AnomAalia horténsis ; supposed to be the perfect Insect of the Ver Blanc, or White Worm, of the French Hor-

. ticulturists. © By William Swainson, Esq. F.B.S. F.L.S. &c. - : = 295 On the Culture of Pettinza nyctaginifidra. By

Robert Sweet, F.L.S., Author of Flora Aus- tralasica, Sweet’s Hortus Britannicus, &c. ae


A serviceable Tally Peg for Plants. By J. ae On the Culture of AmarYilis vittata in the neighbourhood of St. Petersburgh. By Mr. Francis Faldermann, C.M.H.S., Botanic Gar- dener to the Emperor of Russia, at St. Peters- burgh = - - - 300 An approved Method of obtaining a Crop of ' Karly Cauliflower, a week or ten days before those treated in the usual way. By J. M. 302 Some Account of the Dutch Manner of Forcing, as practised in the Kitchen- garden at Hylands, near Chelmsford, the Seat of P. C. Labouchere, Esq., F.H.S. From Notes made there on No-

. vember 7. 1827 - 389

Parr II.

Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London, Vol. VII. Part I. 43, 171 Memoirs of the Caledonian Horticultural So- ciety, Vol. IV. Part I. 55. 192. 303 Verhandlungen des Vereins, zur Beforderung des Gartenbaues, &c. Transactions of the So- ciety for the advancement of Gardening in the Royal Prussian States, Vol. I. Part II. 62. ae


Outlines of Horticultural Chemistry. By G. W. Johnson, Esq., of Great Totham, Essex (Continued from p. 272.) Page 400

On keeping Ice in Ice-houses. By Mr. Richard Saunders, Gardener to C. Hoare, Esq., F.R.S., H.S., &c., at Luscombe, Devonshire - 404

On keeping Potatoes through the Winter and Summer in Canada Cellars. By Mr. George Fulton, Gardener to Lord Northwick, at Northwick Park = - 405

Result of a Trial of Vines trained on hanging Trellises in the Garden of R. Bruce, Esq., of Kennet, Clackmannanshire. By Mr. James Barnet, Curator of the Experimental Garden of the Caledonian Horticultural Society - 407

On planting Timber Trees, with an estimate of the Produce and Profits of an acre of Black Italian Poplar, Pdépulus acladésca, Lind. By C. F. W., of Fazeley, Staffordshire - 409

On the Athenian"Poplar, Pépulus grea, as a Timber Tree. By John H. Moggridge, Esq. of Woodfield - - 410

An Attempt to show how Timber Trees may be cultivated conjointly with Farm Produce. By W. M. of Argyleshire - - 412

Description and Use of Dyer’s Retrocoupling Bee-boxes. By Mr. C. Hale Jessop, nursery- man, Cheltenham - - - 414

An account of a new and effectual Method of protecting early forced Crops, in Frames, dur- ing the Winter and Spring Months. By Mr. E. M. Mather, formerly Gardener at Old Base- ford, Nottingham - 417

Description of an Awning for a Tulip Bed, and also of the Flower Stage in use by the Lancas- ter Horticultural Society. By Mr. Mathias Saul, of Lancaster - 418

On training and managing the Gooseberry with

a view to Fruit for Prize Exhibitions. By Mr. Mathias Saul, of Lancaster - 421 Some Account of the Experiments made by William Atkinson, Esq. F.H.S., which led to the heating of Hot-houses by hot Water. By Mr. John Barrow, Manufacturing Smith - 493 Mr. Atkinson, of Grove End, proved to have been the first who successfully applied the Mode of heating by hot Water to Hot-houses. By Thomas Tredgold, Esq., Engineer 427



| Catalogue of Works on Gardening, Agriculture, Botany, Rural Architecture, &c. published sinceJune last,with some Account of those con- sidered the most interesting 66. 195. 318. 499 Literary Notices - - - - 89 Annales de la Société d’Horticulture de Paris, et Journal Spécial de Etat et des Progrés du Jardinage. Tom. I. Second Livraison, pour Octobre, 1827.


Foreign Notices : Linnean Society - c - 475 France : - 90. 207. 342. 464 Provincial Horticultural and Florists’ Societies Germany - - - 92, 208. 342 109. 233. 356 Italy - o - 95. 209 , Covent Garden Market - 240. 361. 476 Spain - - - - - 209, Architecture - - 477 Portugal - - - 95, 465 | Domestic Economy - - 478 Holland andthe Netherlands - - 95) Hints for Improvements - - 478 Russia - - - - - 96) Antiquities of Gardening - - 479 Denmark - = 96. 344 | Priced List of Florist’s Flowers - 240 North America - 97. 209. 346. 465 | Hints for Experiments - 2 242. 365 South America - - 98. 212 | Garden Libraries - - 115, 252 Asia - - - = 99. 213; Order and Neatness’ - 3 - 245 Australasia = - 100. 214 , Original Beauty of Lines and Forms - 247

Domestic Notices : Answers to Queries, and Queries 117. 253. 374. England - - 102, 214. 350. 467 488 Scotland - - 104, 219. 354. 471! Retrospective Criticism - 121. 255. 368, 481 Ireland - - 106. 229, 355. 472 | Calls at Suburban Gardens 122, 361. 480

Horticultural Society and Garden 106. 230 | Biography a iie o 127. 383

356. 473 | Obituary = - 256. 384, 494




No. IMPLEMENTS. ~ Page 38. Horticultural plough =e = 139 60. The perforator - 214 64. Finlayson’s self-cleaning plough - 243

134. Dutch tilt for hot-bed frames - - 387


16. Murray’s tally for naming plants > 2g) 61. Bregazzi’s bark-bed thermometer - 215 ‘62. Bregazzi’s hot-house thermometer - 215 105, 106. Cheap cast-iron tallies for plants 299 135. Key for raising hot-bed frames - 387 169. Labels for plants = - - 169 MACHINES.

18. Apparatus for blooming fruits - 36 31. Gauen’s solar concentrator - - 101 63. Read’s fumigating bellows - - 229

125. Cabbage-cutting machine for prepar-

ing sauerkraut - - - UTENSILS. 17. Powdering bellows & E35) 86, 87. Ornamental vases for plants, at Dropmore - - 262, 263 128. Gordon’ s kettle - - - 3865 157. Dyer’s retrocoupling bee-boxes - 415 ‘STRUCTURES. 10, 11. Wiring garden walls - - 13, 14 12. Vinery for early and late crops 5) dg 13. New frame for cucumbers - a ail ly. Mr. Acon’s vinery for early forcing 44 20. Mr. Acon’s'vinery for late crops = 45 +21. Mr. Dick’s frame for protecting fruit trees from insects and from frost - 54 32. Mr. Donald’s propagating pit - 193 33. Hen-coops at Virginia Water - 124 48. Gauen’s revolving forcing frame = 70 49, 20. Pit for pines ; -. 172 52, 53. Vinery at Elcot heated by hot wa- “ter 87, 188 57. Bonnet-roofed German hot-house - 205 © 58. Opaque-roofed German conservatory 205 109. Section of a common hot-bed heated by hot water - 310 126, 127. Conservatory of Joseph Wilson, Esq., on Clapham Common - 361, 362 132. Hot-bed sash, for forcing of lettuces in the Dutch manner 886 136. Section of hot-bed and frame for forc- ing lettuces in the Dutch manner 387

137. Section of M‘Phail’s phe with a roof

to the lining 388 138. te 141. Dutch forcing- pits - = 390. 393 142. 145. Dutch peach house, and straw- berry house _ - - 394, 395 149, 150. Reed wall, as cons‘ ructed by the Dutch - 398 . 158. Saul’s awning for a tulip bed - 419 159, 160. Flower stage of the Lancaster Horticultural Society - - 419, 420 EDIFICE. 34, 35, 36, 37. Dairy cottage - 135—137 OPERATIONS. 1. to 9. Pruning the apple E 3—9 922. to 26. French modes of pruning the peach tree - - - 58, 59




Page Grafting the peach on the peach - 149

. Twisting and breaking down the

shoots of pear trees - ES)

. to 83. Grouping trees - = 251, 252 Quincunx manner of planting = 28z


. Section of a terraced vineyard - 146

. Mode of ascertaining the eae of me

sun’s elevation -

. Heating by hot water - - 190

. to 71. Crelual beauty of lines and

form - 248, 249

. 16, 77, 78 & 79. Original beauty of lines

‘and forms . Ventilators for hot-houses at ‘Felinton Castle = = . to 122. Diagrams illustrative of a mode of describing fruits - 326, 327 b Beaune water by;a jet of SHEEN ~ Jl b Heating water by the concentration of the sun’s rays - . Heating water by the street lamps - 368 . A stop, and other details relating to Dutch hot-bed frames = 387 . to 155. Planting trees SOM with agriculture 3 162, 163. Pruning the gooseberry in the Lancashire manner 421 . to 167. Heating by hot water 494, 425, 427 PLANTS.

. Orange on an orange stock - - 2

. Orange on a lemon stock 28

. Caryophyllus aromaticus, the clove

spice 66

. Myristica officinalis, the nutmeg tree 67

. Michéléa Champica rm - 142 Lupinus polyphyllus - - 197

. Clarkia pulchélla - - - 197

. Myrica cerifera - - 206

. to 103. Different species of the pine

anus an tribein the Pinetum at Drop- - - 265—268 Amargilis vittata = - - 300

. Collinséa grandiflora = - - 322

. Kennédéa coccinea - = =oee

. Caragana frutéscens - - 322


. Mangosteen - - - 143 Duku - - - - 143 Courangi - - 143

. Baduc, or Jambosteen _ = - 144

. Rambosteen - - 144

. Royal apricot - - 322


. Botanic garden of Mexico ° 298 73. Plans of flower gardens = - 249

. Plan of a flower garden 2 - 250

. Flower garden at Dropmore Riniaes 259)

. Dutch flower garden at Dropmore - 261 124. Botanic garden of Warsaw - 339 147, 148. Duteh cherry-garden and

net-roof at Hylands -- - 3896, 397 LANDSCAPE. Hamlet’s garden, near Elsinore - 96

Erratum. Page 310, line 17. for 13in. read one eighth of an inch.




Art. I. On the Apple Tree, as trained against a Wall. By Mr. Cuartes Harrison, F.H.S.

Due kind of soil which I consider most suitable for the apple tree is a strong loam upon a dry bottom; for, if the bottom be wet, the trees are generally diseased and affected with canker.

The border for the trees is constructed in the following man- ner: The depth is three feet at the wall, and two feet six inches at the front, also twelve or fourteen broad. The sur- face of the under stratum is so formed, as to have an inclin- ation from the wall to the front of the border of twelve inches. After this is done, a drain is made to run close to the wall, and in a direction with it; also another to run parallel with it, at the front of the border. These drains are open stone drains, and are so made that all superabundant water can be carried entirely away from the border. ‘The drains are so constructed that the tops of them are about three inches higher than the surface of the following composed substratum. After the drains are made, there is laid all over the surface of the under stratum, three inches think of moderate-sized gravel (if gravel cannot be had, stones or brick bats broken toa small size may be used for the purpose); upon this spread about one inch thick of fine gravel (or instead of it strong road drift) ; the whole is then well rolled or beaten firm together ; after this is done, about three inches more of gravel or small stones is laid, which is also beaten or rolled to an even surface, but ‘hot so as to bind them very close together. ‘This method of

Vou. ITI. No. 9. B a.

2 Management of the Apple Tree,

forming the substratum of the border ought always to be at- tended to, when the soil of the border is a very strong loam, unless the bottom is rocky or shaly, when it may be dis- pensed with.

Trees.—I always plant a maiden tree and one that has only one upright stem. In the following instructions I have stated each year’s method of pruning, for such a number of years after the planting of the tree, as appears to be necessary in order to convey my practice fully. ‘The commencement of each year I date from the beginning of winter pruning, and which is always performed as early in the winter as possible, with the exception of the first year, as will be per- ceived. I have only described the practice to that part of each branch produced the first year after the planting of the tree, all other spurs, &c., in the other parts of the tree, requiring the same treatment when at a similar age and con- dition.

First Year.— Winter Pruning. The tree is headed down just before it begins to push; in doing which, the foot is placed upon the soil, and close to the bole, in order to prevent it from being drawn up by the force which is used in the ope- ration. ‘The cut is made in a sloping direction towards the wall, and about half an inch above the bud which is selected for the leading shoot. ‘The tree is cut down so that seven buds remain. The horizontal mode of training I consider preferable to all others for the apple tree.

Summer Pruning. Tf all the buds push (which will gene- rally be the case), they are all permitted to grow until they have attained three inches in length, when two of them are rubbed off; those rubbed off are the third and fourth buds, counting upwards from the origin of the tree. The upper- most shoot is trained straight up the wall for a leading stem, and the remaining four horizontally along the wall, two on each side the stem of the tree. ‘These shoots are trained nine inches apart, for when they are much nearer than this they exclude the sun and air from operating upon the buds and wood, in such a manner as is required to keep the tree pro- ductive. When the leading upright shoot has attained about fifteen inches in length, the end is pinched off so as to leave it about eleven inches long. ‘This causes shoots to be pro- duced from the upper part of the leader thus stopped, three of which are trained in, the uppermost straight up the wall, and the others one on each side the stem of the leader. ‘This stop- ping of the leading shoot is not performed later than the end of June or early in July; for, when it is done much later,

as trained against a Wall. 3

those shoots which push afterwards in that season do not ar- rive at a sufficient degree of maturity to withstand the winter, and are frequently destroyed by frost.. When it happens that a tree has not done well in the early part of the season, and the upright shoot is not of a suitable length or vigour at the proper period for stopping it, it is not meddled with afterwards until the winter pruning of the tree. When the tree grows either too weak or too vigorous, I have recourse to lowering the branches or raising them as required.

Second Year.—Winter Pruning. At the middle or end of November the tree is pruned. The upright leading shoot is now shortened down to ten inches from the place where it,was last stopped. ‘The tree will now be represented by the accompanying sketch. (jig. 1.) The side shoots (but which will hereafter be termed branches) are not shortened, but left their full leneth. If, during sum- mer, the end of a branch should havebeen accidentally broken or damaged, the ge- neral consequence resulting from it is the production of several shoots or fruit buds. If shoots (which is very ge- nerally the case) were pro- duced, and were shortened during summer agreeably to directions for similar shoots in the treatment of the tree for the second year (see Swnmer Prun- ing), they are now cut down to about half an inch in length. (fig. 2.) If; instead of shoots, natural fruit buds should have been produced (these are short and stiff, from half an inch to an inch in length, and red at the ends), such are allowed to remain untouched, as it is on those that fruit are produced. The advantage of shortening back the upright shoot as much as is directed to be done is, that by it branches are certain to be produced at those places desired, so that no vacancy oc- curs. The leading upright shoot thus attended to will reach the top of a wall twelve feet high in seven years, which is as soon as the tree will be able to do, so as to support every part sufficiently. ‘The tree is always loosened from the wall every winter pruning; the wall is swept and washed, also recoloured with paint or coal tar if required; the tree is also anointed with composition. I always lay some fresh mulch to the roots of the trees at this time.


4 Management of the Apple Tree,

Summer Pruning. When the buds upon that part of the leading stem which was produced last have pushed, they are all rubbed off to the three uppermost. The topmost is trained straight up the wall, for a lead to the main stem ; and the two others, one on each side. ‘The instructions given for stopping the leading shoot in summer, also shorten- ing it back in winter pruning, &c., are attended to until the tree arrives at a few inches from the top of the wall. The side branches are allowed to grow without being shortened back at any time, until they have extended as far as can be permitted, when they are pruned im every winter, by cutting back each leading shoot to two buds from where it pushed the previous spring. Any shoots arising from the fore part of the main stem are taken clean away. The buds upon the wood made last year will this summer generally make fruitful ones. If, on the contrary (as is sometimes the case), shoots are produced instead of fruitful buds, they are allowed to grow ten or twelve inches long, until the wood attains a little hardness towards the bottom of it, when they are cut down to about two inches in length; and at the bottom part of what remains, one or two fruit buds are formed, so as to be pro- ductive in most cases the next year, but in others not until the second year. Although such a shoot was shortened as directed, yet it will generally push a shoot or more the same season from the top part of it. After such have grown a suit- able length (as before described), they are cut back to about two inches from where they pushed. If more than one shoot were produced after the first shortening, and a bud or two is well swelled at the origin of the shoot (as before described), all the shoots are left, and shortened as directed ; but, if no such bud is produced, all the shoots are cut clean away ex- cepting one, which is treated in shortening as before directed. The latter practice will generally be found necessary, and also be more advantageous, as a greater portion of sun* and air is admitted to the buds, which will be considerably strengthened and forwarded to a mature state. If after such treatment fruit buds are not produced from the origin of the shoot, I nail the shoot to the wall, parallel with the branch, which is uniformly successful in producing them.

Third Year.—Winter Pruning. Such of the buds as pro- duced wood shoots the last year, and were shortened during summer as described, are now shortened more. It frequently happens that a fruitful bud, or in some instances two, will have been formed at the lower part of the shoot (fig. 2. aa); such shoots are now cut off about quarter of an inch above

as trained against a Wall. 5

the uppermost of the fruitful buds (4): but (as it is sometimes the case), if there have not been fruitful buds produced, there will be growing buds, and then the shoots are cut down so as to leave one bud. (fig. 2. c.) On some occasions the growing buds and fruitful buds will appear but very indistinctly, and in an embryo state; when this is the case the shoots are cut down so as to leave two of those em- bryo buds (dd). ‘There are generally some natural fruit buds which did not push to shoots, all such are left entire (c). ‘They are of a reddish colour, and are easily distinguished from growing buds, which are considerably less and all of a dark colour.

Summer Pruning. ‘This summer the fruitful buds are pro- ductive. When the fruit has swelled a little, a shoot generally proceeds from the stem of ithe spur (which it may now be called), just underneath the fruit: such are allowed to grow eight or ten inches long, and are then shortened back to two inches, or so as ‘to leave three eyes upon each. (fig. 3.A,a.) By shortening the shoot, strength is thrown

b A Ab 5

into the fruit, and, during summer, two or more fruit buds are generally produced at the bottom of the shoot thus cut down (fig. 3. bb), or, otherwise, from the lower part of the spur. (jig. 3. c.) It sometimes occurs that, when the tree is very vigorous, some of the buds (fg. 3. 6 4) will push into shoots, or occasionally into bloom, during the latter end of summer. If shoots, they are allowed to grow, and are then shortened, as described for similar shoots; but, when bloom is produced, it is immediately cut off close under the blossom.

The shoots (jig. 2. c) produced after the third year’s winter pruning are allowed to grow, and are then shortened, as already directed for similar shoots. (See Second Year's Summer Pruning.) The shoots which were pruned as directed last

B 3

"6 Management of the Apple Tree,

winter, and had embryo buds (fg. 2. dd) during this summer, generally have a fruit bud, and in some cases two, formed at their bases. ‘I'he treatment of all shoots produced upon any of the spurs in future, is agreeably to the previous instructions given.

T always thin the fruit, and, where two are situated together, I take one away; this is done when I perceive them begin to flesh.

Fourth Year. Winter Pruning. ‘The spurs (fig. 3. a B) which were productive last summer, and upon which a shoot was made and shortened (jig. 3. a, spur A), are now regulated in the following manner: If there be two good fruit buds formed upon the stem of the spur (fg.3.dd, spur B), all that part of it above such buds is cut away, about a quarter of an inch above the uppermost (as at c):.but, if there is only one good fruit bud upon the stem, and one upon the shoot which was cut in during summer (as at a, spur A), then it is pruned off (as at spur c, ce), so that two buds only remain (as,ff). When there is only one fruit bud upon the stem of the spur (as spur D, a), and no fruitful buds at the shoot (5), then all the spur is pruned away (as at c). Sometimes those spurs that bear fruit will not have a shoot produced, but, instead of it, a fruitful bud (as spur &, a); it is then pruned off just above such bud (as at 6).

Summer Pruning. All shoots are pruned, as already directed in the second and third years.

Fifth Year. —Winter Pruning. All the spurs are allowed to retain three fruitful buds each ; but, as there are generally more than is required to keep, some of them are thinned. away, retaining the best buds. The ripest buds are most plump and red at the ends. If such buds are situated near to the origin of the spur (as fig. 4. spur a, aaa), they are retained in preference to similar fruitful